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Saturday October 21

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The Voice Over Practice Script Library

Script Genres > English Adult > Narration > Documentary

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'Sgt. Pepper' 50th Anniversary: The Making of a Rock Classic - Extended Intro

(Content adapted from Lauri Ulster’s “'Sgt. Pepper' 50th Anniversary: The Making of a Rock Classic”)

Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band spun the music industry on its heels. When the album came out, the public devoured it, the critics raved, and other musicians stopped in their tracks, recognizing that the game had changed forever.

When you break it down into its individual songs, there is the usual mix of masterpieces, gems, and lesser songs—within the context of still being the Beatles, which means even the lesser songs impress—but there’s something that happened when the Beatles, the time period, the studio, and the people who worked on the album came together. Much like the Lennon-McCartney songwriting team, and the Lennon-McCartney-Harrison-Starr combination, there was alchemy at play, and the result woke up the music industry to the fact that new creative frontiers were possible, and could still be commercial as hell.

Love it or not, the album was groundbreaking. Let’s take a closer look at the elements that brought it all together, starting with:

The Studio
By the mid-sixties, The Beatles—who’d initially been turned down by every record label in town—ruled over Abbey Road studios. They couldn’t control things like the drab décor or the painfully rough toilet paper—okay, they did eventually get that changed, after much protest—but they could put the studio and its staff on hold, and wander in and out as they pleased. They’d set session times for 7:00 p.m. but show up hours later. They’d have nothing scheduled, but suddenly call everybody up and tell them to come in. They’d use whatever instruments were around, fight for the padlock to be taken off the fridge so they’d still have access to it in the wee hours of the morning, and record whenever the inspiration struck, working on individual songs, tracks, or even simple riffs for as long as it took to get the sound just right. Anyone who signed on to work with them knew that their hours would be long and completely unpredictable, but incredibly rewarding. 

They filled the studio up with other musicians, friends, and artists. When George Martin brought in half an orchestra for “A Day in the Life,” the Beatles asked for them to come in “evening dress,” and they did the same, although their version of it involved, as Martin described them, “outrageously flamboyant floral costumes.” McCartney showed up in a full-length red cook’s apron. 

That was the atmosphere, but the studio’s technology was the other important piece of Abbey Road’s creative puzzle. At that time, producers only had four tracks available to work with, and every time they transferred the recording to another tape, they sacrificed some of the quality. The constant improvisation needed to move beyond the restraints of the era spurred the Beatles, along with producer George Martin and engineer Geoff Emerick, to new creative heights as they found innovative and strange ways to get to what they were after. That spirit of experimentation is as much a part of the album as the tracks themselves. 

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2012 Extinction

The Maya, an ancient South American culture, predicted that time would end in a violent apocalypse on December 21, 2012. They created an elaborate astronomical calendar called "The Long Count," which stops abruptly in 2012. This date, which is also the winter equinox, coincides with an incredibly rare galactic alignment that happens once every 26,000 years. What did the Mayans think would happen when their calendar ended? And were they joined by other cultures--from different parts of the world and in different centuries--all pointing to 2012 as a calamitous end time? The Hopi Indians and Eastern Hindu share similar calendars, which are remarkably synchronous. One counter-culture mystic even uses an Ancient Chinese philosophy to unlock the key to a 2012 prophecy. Nostradamus himself suggests the world is headed toward a coming cataclysm. What can we do to head the warning of the Mayan apocalypse?

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2012 Extinction

The Maya, an ancient South American culture, predicted that time would end in a violent apocalypse on December 21, 2012. They created an elaborate astronomical calendar called "The Long Count," which stops abruptly in 2012.

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2013 Heisman Preview

The 2013 Heisman Trophy race promises to field a group of dual-threat quarterbacks that have displayed the ability to impact the game with their tremendous passing and rushing skills.
The trend of all-purpose quarterbacks dominating the Heisman chase continued in 2012, as Texas A&M’s Johnny Manziel captured college football’s top individual award.
Heisman voters have had a fascination with these athletes that have redefined the quarterback position in recent years. Florida’s Tim Tebow opened up the floodgates of this new Heisman era by running and passing his way to the bronzed trophy in 2007. Since then, the award has been garnered by similar performances from Auburn’s Cam Newton, Baylor’s Robert Griffin III and the Aggies Johnny Football.

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A Giant Mini Supermarket - Special Interest Story

This may look like the front of a vending machine. In fact, to make a purchase, all you do is dial a code and a robot sales clerk does the rest.

Instead of just sodas or crackers, this machine offers more than five hundred items - like panty hose, shampoos, lotions, pacifiers, tooth paste, batteries – even dog food. Need to stock up the fridge? No problem. The automatic supermarket stocks all the essentials – eggs, milk, juices, ham, cheese, yogurt, fresh fruit, cake mix, bread, rice, cereal, pasta, a variety of frozen foods, and just about anything else you can think of to complete your shopping list. The automatic store offers almost every luxury you can think of – wine and liquor, cigarettes, even chocolates. About the only thing this store can’t do is carry your grocery bags for you. But the customers don’t seem to mind - and squeezed into just 500 square feet, this curious little shop just may be the convenience store of the future.

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A Haunting title

In this world, there is real evil.
In the darkest shadows and in the most ordinary places.
These are the true stories o the innocent and the unimaginable.

Between the world we see and the things we fear.
There are doors.
When they are opened.
Nightmares become reality.

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A Penchant for Luxury

Something happend to Korean humility on the country's journey from rags to riches--it got lost.Whatever happened to the generations-old Korean tradition of making do with less, the result of the 35 year Japanese occupation and having to rebuild from the ashes of war?  It was replaced by a penchant for extravagance.Seoul's M youngdong is the shopper with money to burn can also have a ball shopping for luxury goods in a pkujong or Chongdam dong, That's quite a remarkable turnaround for a country where just one generation a go the average Korean spent his or her time at markets haggling over the price of a pari of socks costing 100 won.

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A Story

Every moment has a story. And every story matters

The first men painted stories on stone walls, the ancient Egyptians chose the chisel instead.

The Incans told story with dances and fire, aborigines told it with star and spear.

Stories are at the very essence of human life. They count the breaths of every sunrise, the beats of every emotion and the silence of every heart. Stories take the fleeting temporal and makes them eternal.

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Abiogenic theory

The abiogenic theory holds that hydrocarbons were a component of the material that formed the earth, through accretion of solids, some 4.5 billion years ago. With increasing internal heat, liquids and gases were liberated, and because they were less dense than the rocks, buoyancy forces drove them upward. In favorable conditions, the upward journey from the regions of origin would be dammed temporarily in porous rocks at depths that our drills can reach, and from which we then derive commercial petroleum.

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About Horror

Take a trip back to a time when late night creature features were all the rage and the personalities that presented them were just as popular as the movies.

Beginning in the 1950s, the horror fest was a staple of regional television. From ghouls to vampires – to werewolves and crypt keepers – every host had a persona to suit their unique personalities.

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Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

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Alacola Valley

Water. Clear, fresh and life-giving to the crops of the Alacola Valley. Rushing ever onward to the sea. The waters of the Minset River visit this lush valley to replenish the soil and color the land. Yellow citrus, green vegetables, blueberries and ruby-red fruit checkerboard the landscape in brilliant hues. Farmers, who have tended this land for generations move from field to field inspecting the size, calculating weight and measuring progress. Progress is slow. But only with time can the flavors of the Alcola Valley reach perfection. And it's perfection that's what the Valley is all about. The possibility of an early frost and the consequence of even three extra days of rain weighs heavily on the minds of the caretakers. But today is glorious and worry will wait until tomorrow.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was a genius, and one of the greatest physicists of all time. His famous “Theories of Relativity” which describe the relationship between mass and energy, and between space and time, were published in 1905 and 1916. Einstein was born of Jewish parents in Ulm, Germany. He spent many years in Switzerland, becoming a Swiss Citizen in 1901, and gaining his Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1905 from Zürich University. It was while employed as a patent clerk in Berne that he published his first “Theory of Relativity”. This contained his famous equation: E=mc2, which explains the relationship between mass and energy.

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Ambassadors of Hope and Opportunity

Just north of San Francisco lies Marin County, which is often regarded as one of the wealthiest in the country. Despite the affluence, there is still a vulnerable population of young people often being overlooked. Homeless young adults are off the grid. They're not being counted in the census or by any single Marin County agency.
They don't have cell phones, they don't have a mailing address, they don't have email.
They don't have driver's licenses or cars. They're sleeping on friends' couches, camped out in the hills above Gerstle Park, sleeping in parked cars and who knows where else.
Doing everything they can to remain hidden.

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America's Castles - Grand Plantations

Once upon a time in America, there was a classic feudal system.
Not unlike those built around the of the castles of Europe.
Where serf and slave existed to serve a noble aristocracy,
and protect a grand lifestyle.

“They were the best of times they were the worst of times”

Charles Dickens opening words in a Tale of Two Cities
could as well have described life in the American south
in the Antebellum Era, the days before the Civil War.

It was a time when the planters made enormous fortunes
built on the labor of slaves fueled by sugar cane, rice and
king cotton.

The results were the grand plantations of the old south.
Spectacular homes designed for opulent lifestyles.

It was a time of incredible irony.
Where beauty and ugliness, gentility and brutality,
humanity and inhumanity lived side by side,
in mansion and slave quarter.

On this episode of America's Castles
we'll follow the Mississippi River from New Orleans to Natchez
as we look at some of the Grand Plantations of the old south.

RH

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America's Money Vault

Whether it’s cash, gold, or digital bits, we all know that money makes the world go round. And what that money is worth depends on trust. Trust that the engines that power it all won’t fail. For the first time, National Geographic is going to take you inside the system. Places that you’re not allowed to bring a camera – straight into the vaults of the world’s largest stash of what you want, need, and bust your butt to get – money. One of the places that truly controls money is the central bank of the United States – the Federal Reserve. They count it, store it, move it, inflate it, deflate it, destroy, stabilize, lend and buy it…and make a profit off of it. But above all, they protect it.

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American Exceptionalism is a Dangerous Myth

An inability to change is symptomatic of a people who consider themselves chosen and who cannot surrender their chosenness. When we look at our nation now, do we see the virtuous republic our history has always placed before us as if it were a sacred chalice? The thought seems preposterous. America was exceptional once, to go straight to the point. But this was not for the reasons Americans thought of themselves as such. America was exceptional during the decades when westward land seemed limitless—from independence until 1890, if we take the census bureau’s word for the latter date. For roughly a century, then, Americans were indeed able to reside outside of history—or pretend they did. But this itself, paradoxically, was no more than a circumstance of history. Americans have given the century and some since over to proving what cannot be proved. This is what lends the American century a certain tragic character: It proceeded on the basis of a truth that was merely apparent, not real. Do Americans have a democratic mission? Finally someone has asked. And the only serious answer is, “They never did.”

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American Film Institute

Film, even from its silent days in the 1920s, has proven to be an art form particularly suitable for handling intimate psychological subjects. It is a medium of observation, the almost clinical recording of human behavior, with every nuance of expression and gesture enhanced in the close-up. As a highly controlled flow of images, film is uniquely able to reflect the flux of mental and emotional experience. Madness, which raises basic questions about the nature of these experiences, has been a very popular subject for filmmakers. For the film artist, madness is a subject that probes the darkest and most hidden side of our being.

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American Gothic

In 1930, an Iowa artist named Grant Wood asked his sister and his dentist to pose for a painting; a tribute to the tough rural stock of America.

He dressed his sister in a simple frock: a white collar held close around her neck by a broach. The dentist he outfitted in overalls, a band collar shirt buttoned tight around the throat and a dark business jacket.

He posed the couple, board-stiff in front of a plain house.

The man, transformed by art into a Midwestern farmer, grips a pitchfork and stares straight ahead. The woman looks away.

The resulting painting, called American Gothic, became one of the most enduring images of the decade, an icon of the spirit that survived the hard times of the Depression.

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American Teacher

The debate about public education has never been louder. There are dozen of theories out there about what works and what doesn’t. We’ve experimented with charter schools, test standards, class size, curricula and technology. It turns out that most people agree that a teacher is the most important in-school factor to a child’s success. And yet the teaching profession has never been less respected and less understood.

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Anaconda

Giant snakes have a reputation of being aggressive. The anaconda measures over 16 feet and weighs 180 pounds. Its mouth is like a clamp and an animal struggling to get free only sets the grip tighter. At the same time it sets its bite, the anaconda loops its powerful coils around its victim and begins to squeeze. The process takes little more than a second, hardly enough time to react.

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Ancient Alien Theory

According to ancient alien theorists, extraterrestrials with superior knowledge of science and engineering landed on Earth thousands of years ago, sharing their expertise with early civilizations and forever changing the course of human history. But how did this concept develop, and is there any evidence to support it?

Ancient alien theory grew out of the centuries-old idea that life exists on other planets, and that humans and extraterrestrials have crossed paths before. The theme of human-alien interaction was thrust into the spotlight in the 1960s, driven by a wave of UFO sightings and popular films like 2001: A Space Odyssey. The space program played no small part in this as well: If mankind could travel to other planets, why couldn’t extraterrestrials visit Earth?

In 1968, the Swiss author Erich von Däniken published Chariots of the Gods?, which became an immediate bestseller. In it, he put forth his hypothesis that, thousands of years ago, space travelers from other planets visited Earth, where they taught humans about technology and influenced ancient religions. He is regarded by many as the father of ancient alien theory, also known as the ancient astronaut theory.

Most ancient alien theorists, including von Däniken, point to two types of evidence to support their ideas. The first is ancient religious texts in which humans witness and interact with gods or other heavenly beings who descend from the sky—sometimes in vehicles resembling spaceships—and possess spectacular powers. The second is physical specimens such as artwork depicting alien-like figures and ancient architectural marvels like Stonehenge and the pyramids of Egypt.

If aliens visited Earth in the past, could they make an appearance in the future? For ancient alien theorists, the answer is a resounding yes. They believe that, by sharing their views with the world, they can help prepare future generations for the inevitable encounter that awaits them.

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Ancient Computer

In 1900, a storm blew a boatload of sponge divers off course and forced them to take shelter by the tiny Mediterranean island of Antikythera.

Diving the next day, they discovered a 2,000 year-old Greek shipwreck. Among the ship's cargo they hauled up was an unimpressive green lump of corroded bronze. Rusted remnants of gear wheels could be seen on its surface, suggesting some kind of intricate mechanism.

The first X-ray studies confirmed that idea, but how it worked and what it was for puzzled scientists for decades. Recently, hi-tech imaging has revealed the extraordinary truth: this unique clockwork machine was the world's first computer.

An array of 30 intricate bronze gear wheels, originally housed in a shoebox-size wooden case, was designed to predict the dates of lunar and solar eclipses, track the Moon's subtle motions through the sky, and calculate the dates of significant events such as the Olympic Games.

No device of comparable technological sophistication is known from anywhere in the world for at least another 1,000 years.

So who was the genius inventor behind it? And what happened to the advanced astronomical and engineering knowledge of its makers?

Contributed by Daniel Krempa

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Another U2 Spy Plane Incident

On October 27, 1962, just as the Cuban Missile Crisis was reaching its boiling point, an American U-2 spy plane took off from Alaska en route to a routine reconnaissance mission near the North Pole. Pilot Charles Maultsby was supposed to use celestial navigation to find his way, but halfway through the trip his view of the night sky became hopelessly obscured by the glow of the aurora borealis, or “northern lights.” With no visual markers to guide him, Maultsby soon drifted far off course and inadvertently crossed the border into the Soviet Union.

Because the situation in Cuba still rested on a knife-edge, Maultsby’s accidental detour carried possibly catastrophic consequences. Worried the U-2 could be a nuclear bomber, the Soviets scrambled several MiG fighter jets and sent them on a course to destroy the intruding aircraft. The Air Force responded by dispatching two F-102 fighters armed with nuclear-tipped missiles to shepherd Maultsby back to Alaska. Any confrontation between the two groups of aircraft could have potentially ended in all-out war, but Maultsby managed to glide his U-2—which had long since run out of fuel—out of Soviet airspace before he could be intercepted. Having averted disaster on two fronts, President John F. Kennedy and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev would find a peaceful resolution to the Cuban Missile Crisis the following day.

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Ansel Adams - A letter to his father

June 8th, 1920. Dear Father: I am more than ever convinced that the only possible way to interpret the scenes hereabout is through an impressionistic vision. A cold material representation gives one no conception whatsoever of the great size and distances of these mountains. Ansel.

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Antarctica

Far to the south lies a land of dazzling snow fields, crystalline glaciers, and dramatically carved ice mountains soaring above an untamed frozen wilderness. There are no human sounds in this land of primeval beauty, only the wild cries of birds, seals, and whales echoing across a vast expanse of land and sea. Experience the wonders and grandeur of a land where few have ever set foot as we discover the world’s last frontier -- the great White Continent. This special voyage takes place during the austral summer, when the weather is best, temperatures are moderate, and days are long. Penguin chicks are hatching and it is common to see elephant seals along the beaches.

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Apollo 16

The year was 1967, and the astronauts of Apollo 16 were going to the moon. This is Charlie Duke, Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 16. This amazing little capsule went by the call-sign CASPER, and it was the heart of an immense system of rocket engineering that got the astronauts safely to the moon and back.

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Appalachian Trail

There's a bumper sticker on my Toyota with the words "My other car is a pair of boots." I smiled when I bought it long ago, because I've always felt most at home with a carpet of green at my feet and a canopy of branches and sky above. Now when I see that sticker I still smile, but I also feel pride and wonder at the astonishing reality of those words. For just over five months in 2008, my other car was actually four pairs of boots. That's how many I wore out walking the 2,175-mile Appalachian Trail. I'm told that's about 5 million steps.
Quite possibly the world's most famous footpath, the Appalachian Trail wanders through 14 states, from Georgia to Maine. It is within a day's drive of two-thirds of the United State's population, and every year an average of 2 to 3 million people will walk some section of it. Most will be day hikers. But according to the Appalachian Trail Conservancy, some 1,500 intrepid souls will set out to walk - or "thru-hike," as it's called - the entire trail. Of those, only about one in four will succeed.

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Argentina

Mention Argentina and images of gauchos and the tango come to mind. But for many who visit it’s also a country full of natural treasures. These range from its barren northern landscapes to the sheer beauty of the soaring Andes.

At the center of all this is the capital city of Buenos Aires, renowned for its European sophistication. Despite its size, one-third of the population of Argentina clusters in Buenos Aires, the economic core of the country, and one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world.

It’s a rare privilege indeed to be able to get this exceptional perspective of the capital, because from this vantage point one can truly appreciate the grandeur of this legendary city.

Below us now is the famous “plaza de mayo” considered to be the very heart of Argentina. It is in this square that the people have always come together, in good times and in bad.

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Armenian Genocide Museum of America

OPEN:

"The Holocaust was not the first genocide of the 20th century. During the first World War, the Ottoman Empire sought to eliminate an entire ethnic group of people. Armenian culture and history thrived for over 3000 years at the crossroads of Europe and Asia."

CLOSE:

"In the 20th century, an estimated 15 million people have been wiped off the face of the earth by genocide. To learn from these dark chapters of human history will require overcoming denial, facing the truth, and coming to terms with genocide, to avoid repeating it."

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Army Rangers

these are america's elite shock troops

the United States Army 75th Ranger Regiment

a select unit trained to stagger an adversary with Lethal speed and firepower

executed across land

sea or from the air theirs is a complex operation

that is clear-cut in its objective

but to operate deep in hostile territory

the Rangers must put themselves in constant peril

one mistake in and a ranger unit can wind up

outmanned outgunned and far from help. it is a threat that has claimed Ranger lives

as recently as 1993

in an ambush in war-torn alleys of Somalia

they are guided by a long and illustrious Ranger tradition

forged in some of the most dangerous campaigns ever faced by american

fighting men

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Ashokan Farewell

In great deeds something abides.
On great fields something stays.
Forms change;
bodies disappear;
spirits linger,
to consecrate ground for the vision-place of souls.

And reverent men and women from afar,
and generations that know us not of,
heart-drawn to see where and by whom
great things were suffered and done for them,
shall come to this deathless field, to ponder and dream;

and lo!

The shadows of a mighty presence
shall wrap them in its bosom,
and the power of the vision pass into
their souls.

Major-General Joshua Chamberlain
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
October 3, 1889

Contributed by Richurd.

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Athens

Whether one comes by air, sea, or land, the visitor to Athens enters a metropolis. It’s a huge city ... an urban sea, surging around a few outcroppings of rock ... a sea which spreads a little farther with each passing year. Built around the remains of antiquity, the modern city of Athens has sent its long straight avenues pushing out beyond its own limits, particularly across the plain leading to the sea.

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Atom Bomb

On August 9th, it was announced over the Missouri’s public address that an atom bomb was dropped on a Japanese city. The description of the enormity of this weapon and the massive damage it caused horrified just about everyone aboard. There followed a series of “false peaces.” Air strikes had been routinely launched on August 15th, but an announcement was made that we were attempting to recall the planes. The Japanese had finally accepted our peace terms, and the war was over. There was shouting and cheering when the news came over the Missouri’s public address, but several thousand men crowded together in a wartime battleship...

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Audrey Hepburn

Audrey Hepburn

Audrey Hepburn’s real story is one of a reluctant celebrity who came to understand the true value of her fame when she took the spotlight off herself, and shone it directly on the faces of the world’s children. That is how we came to truly know her, continued to be captivated by her, and why we are still in love with her. Today she remains the personification of irresistible charm, grace, and dignity.

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Bandicoot

A western narred bandicoot scampers through dense scrub and thickets after nightfall, searching for food. The little marsupial adeptly unearths insects and roots with its sharp foreclaws, and with its long nose probes the sandy soil and crevices for seeds and herbs. During the day, the solitary bandicoot nestles into a shallow nest to sleep, undetected beneath a cover of gathered plant or seagrass litter. This species is no longer found on the mainland, and now exists only on two island nature reserves, where it is protected from introduced predators and habitat changes.

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Baseball

In our next segment, we visit individual stadiums, explore tales of the classic teams, legendary stars, and the devotion of the American baseball fan. First stop: Yankee Stadium, home of the team America loves to hate and breeding ground for a host of superstars and legends. Back at the Hall of Fame in the World Series room, we explore the lives of ordinary men with extraordinary skills. And look at how and why Americans have elevated such men to mythic places in our folklore. Chicago, Illinois -- in America’s foremost sports city, our first location is Comiskey Park, the oldest standing major league ballpark in America.

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Baseball (Ken Burn's Documentary)

In 1909, a man named Charles Hercules Ebbets began secretly buying up adjacent parcels of land in the Flatbush section of Brooklyn including the site of a garbage dump called “pig town” because of the pigs that once ate their fill there and the stench that filled the air.

He hoped eventually to build a permanent home for the lackluster baseball team he had once worked for and now owned. The team was called the Trolley Dodgers or just the Dodgers after the way their devoted fans negotiated Brooklyn’s busy streets.

In 1912, construction began. By the time it was completed, “pig town” had been transformed into Ebbets Field, baseball’s newest shrine where some of the games greatest drama would take place.

In the years to come, Dodger fans would see more bad times than good but hardly cared. Listen to the southern cadences of a pioneer broadcaster and witness first hand when a black man wearing the number 42 trotted out to first base.

Submitted by TxTom

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Beavers

The beaver builds its lodge out of intertangled twigs and sticks; as freezing weather nears, they plaster their lodge with mud, making a concrete layer that no predator can break through. During the early nineteenth century, the beaver pelt was the single most valuable commodity; the pelt being used for robes, coats, clothing trims, and top hats.

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Bellydancing

One of the biggest misconceptions about belly dancing is that its purpose is to entertain men. It's not-it's actually used to entertain women and for fertility rites. It's been portrayed in hieroglyphics on the pyramids; it's one of the oldest recorded dances in history.

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Biblical Narration

16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
17 For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved.
18 He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
Saint John's Gospel Chapter 3 Verse 16 through 18

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Big Fork Montana: Arts and Entertainment City Confidential

Big Fork Montana: Arts And Entertainment - City Confidential
In 1997 it was hard not to believe in Big Fork's dark side. The ruthless murder of a well-known resident stunned the town. The crime loomed over this bayside village for months, as the astonishing facts about who was behind the killing came to light. Big Fork Montana, an isolated outpost on the shore of Flathead Lake, a rustic village whose shutters are continuously rattled by an ongoing real estate boom, but behind the for sale signs and story book façade exists the old Big Fork a genuine sort of place found only in the mountain west.

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Border Raiders

Most strongholds in the Border region employed groups of mercenaries known as reivers (or Raiders). These highly motivated soldiers would organize bloody Border raids to loot and kidnap; indeed to be visited by such a raiding party coined the phrase, “to be bereaved.” Once an individual was taken, he was dragged back to the castle, shacked and lowered through the hatch to the pit below.

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Bullfrogs

Contrary to popular opinion, frogs aren't just selective eaters feasting only on flies. Take the bullfrog for example, they'll eat spiders, scorpions, rodents, snakes, fish and just about anything else that passes in front of them.

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Bureau Of Engraving & Printing

If you’ve ever looked closely at one of the bills in your wallet, you will have noticed that each bill has green Treasury Seals and serial numbers, as well as black Federal Reserve Seals and District numbers. The presses at your left are overprinting this important information, in sequential order, on each bill while it is still in one sheet containing 16 bills. One hundred of these sheets at a time are then stacked into a plexiglass tray. There is a small suction cup underneath the counting device, making sure that the count is accurate and that no sheets have stuck together.

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Businessmen Heroes

50 years ago, businessmen were folk heroes. You and I may think the first Henry Ford was an eccentric with a distinctly comic side -- but our grandfathers didn’t. At the turn of the century, a certain class of business figure enjoyed a degree of public admiration that Americans of that period offered to very few of their politicians. Over the years, but especially since World War II, that unqualified admiration has evaporated. The trouble has little to do with the conduct of business, and everything to do with the present stage of American technology.

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Cacti

Dry Thorn Forest consists primarily of cacti. Among these is Opuntia moniliformis, known locally as alpargata, which may reach a height of twelve feet. Neoabottia paniculata, which may grow thirty feet high, is a tree cactus with a smooth trunk and spiny branches at the top, while Pilocereus polygonus is a shorter, many-branched tree cactus. A very spiny cactus called Leptocereus weingartiana creeps across the ground or climbs on other vegetation.

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Canary Island Settlers to Texas - 1731

Canary Island Families – On March 9, 1731, fifty-five Canary Islanders arrived at Béxar, becoming the first municipality in the Spanish province of Texas.

During the settlement of Texas in the early 1700’s, the Spanish government recognized the need to both Christianize and civilize the Indians of Texas. They also realized they would need to keep the French from encroaching on Spanish territory. They developed a three-fold strategy.

First, was to establish a series of missions to bring Christianity to the Indians. Next, protect those missions by a series of presidios - or forts and finally - populate the territory with civil settlements loyal to New Spain. The presidio of San Antonio de Béjar was established on the San Antonio River in 1718. That same year, the mission of San Antonio de Valero was moved from the Rio Grande to the vicinity of the presidio, completing the first two stages of the three-fold strategy. Béxar, as it was known, was populated only by a small group of soldiers and their few families. A civil government did not exist at this time.

The last phase of the strategy was to establish a civil settlement or presence in Texas. To that end, on February 14, 1719, the Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to King Philip V of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana - to populate the province of Texas. His plan was approved, and notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families; the Council of the Indies suggested that 400 families should be sent from the Canaries to Texas by way of Havana and Veracruz.

By June 1730, twenty-five families had reached Cuba and ten families had been sent on to Veracruz before orders from Spain to stop the movement, arrived.

Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, ten families started out from the Canary Islands. Within a month after the group arrived at Cuatitlan in September of 1730, the number increased by marriages to fifteen families and four single men, a total of fifty-six persons. This is evident from a comparison of the list of the families taken at Cuatitlán, September 9, 1730 with the official list taken just before they left Cuatitlan , November 8, 1730. At Saltillo in the state of Coahuila a new list and inventory was taken on January 31, 1731. They were provided with an escort of 10 soldiers to the Presidio de San Juan Bautista and from there they where escorted to the presidio of San Antonio de Béxar by Francisco Dubal, where they arrived at eleven o’clock in the morning on March 9, 1731.

The Alvarez Travieso and the Arocha families apparently joined the original party of settlers after their arrival at Cuatitlan . A new and final list was made after arrival at San Antonio in order to confer upon them the title of nobility, as first settlers and upon their descendants, the title of Hijos Dalgos or "Hidalgos", mandated and so honored by the king of Spain, Philip V, each family head could use the term “Don” before his name, denoting his title. Today, there are many individuals and families who are descendants from these original Canary Island colonists.

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Cancer Battle

My wife, Elizabeth, always thought Dr. Kent took excellent care of her. I remember the day she received a call from him telling her that the results from the Pap smear performed during her first prenatal visit came back equivocal--basically unclear. Since Elizabeth had no family history of cancer, and because she knew she was in such great hands, she really wasn’t too concerned, and planned to return to Dr. Kent’s office for a repeat Pap in five months – at her first postpartum visit. She returned for the visit as scheduled and saw Rebecca-- Dr. Kent’s nurse practitioner. Since no one had told Elizabeth that she couldn’t have a Pap done while she was on her period, she had to reschedule her appointment. I don’t think Elizabeth was ever told how imperative it was for her to reschedule her appointment as soon as possible, otherwise she would have. She was so laid back and calm about the need to repeat the Pap smear – if only they had stressed the importance of rescheduling her appointment as soon as possible. Elizabeth lost her battle with cancer a few months later. I keep asking myself, why did this have to happen?

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Caribbean Seafood

An early Caribbean traveler recorded the “rare kinds of fishes” he tasted at Barbadian tables this way: “Mullets, Macquerels, Parrot Fish, Snappers, Crabs, and Lobsters.” Like him, today’s island visitors relish the opportunity to taste fresh seafood with exotic names, and equally exotic preparations. Some of the Caribbean seafood dishes merely seem exotic because, forced by limited food supplies to be resourceful, islanders eat many species that are ignored or underutilized in the States.

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Case Study: Forward

Barack Obama was launched into the spotlight during the 2008 presidential election. The Yes We Can music video, created by Fred Goldring, has more than 25 million views and was named the 6th most important YouTube video of all time. The video brought the Obama brand to life, and set the stage for his time in the oval.

Forward to 2012. With one term under his belt, came new experiences and shifting perceptions. The Obama brand was in need of a jolt of energy. A new campaign to instill a vision of hope among voters. To move Obama – Forward. A celeb-laden campaign featuring the single ‘Forward’ included Neyo, Herbie Hancock, Johnny Rzeznik and Natasha Bedingfield was unleashed the week before the election. Hosted on the wildly popular Noisey YouTube channel and a single released on iTunes, Forward set the stage for a grass-roots-style push for four more years.

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Cathouse

In 2002, HBO's cameras went inside Nevada's Moonlite Bunny Ranch for the first time - and brought viewers a never-before-seen look inside an actual legal brothel in the USA. A year later, in Cathouse 2: Back in the Saddle, HBO returned for another intimate look at the "working girls" who pleasure men (and women) for pay - including footage of actual trysts. And in 2005, HBO viewers got an extended reservation to the Ranch with the first season of Cathouse: The Series (note new title change), featuring 11 sizzling editions. Proving you can't get enough of a good thing, Cathouse Season Two returned in 2007 with the first of six monthly episodes, "Hot to Trot." The series gave fans a fresh and fast-paced look at the familiar and new girls who worked at the Ranch, as well as some of the johns who visited. The series shed light not only on the numerous joys and challenges of working at a legal brothel, but on the therapeutic benefits that customers took with them after a stint at the Ranch. Still thriving after 50 years, the Moonlite Bunny Ranch is arguably the most famous brothel in the state that pioneered legal prostitution. Since brothels were legalized in many Nevada counties in 1972, the state has become a sexual mecca for red-blooded, law-abiding Americans looking to live out their fantasies in places like the Bunny Ranch, which is located at the end of a dusty road about 35 miles south of Reno.

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Cats

They are hunters, with muscles taut, and eyes fixed on their intended prey. They are gentle, with fluid movement and a sensitive touch. They are regal, with a lineage that goes back to worshiped ancestors during the time of the Pharaohs. They are introspective, aloof, unpredictable, affectionate, comical and mischievous. They are cats.

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Cats

They are hunters, with muscles taut, and eyes fixed on their intended prey. They are gentle, with fluid movement and a sensitive touch. They are regal, with a lineage that goes back to worshiped ancestors during the time of the Pharaohs. They are introspective, aloof, unpredictable, affectionate, comical and mischievous. They are cats.

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Central African Republic

The people of the Central African Republic (CAR) are trapped in crisis. Over a period of 18 months, Doctors Without Borders conducted four mortality studies, and in areas where more than half the people reside, death rates were several times what is considered to be the emergency threshold by the World Health Organization. The country’s health system has broken down, and life expectancy is only 48 years old, one of the lowest in the world.

Men, women, and children are suffering and dying from malaria, HIV, tuberculosis, sleeping sickness, and other treatable and preventable diseases. Violent conflict between government and rebel forces, especially in prefectures located on the border, has displaced entire villages. These dire conditions are made all the worse because the nation’s phantom health care system is unable to make even the barest minimum of quality care available and accessible to people in need.

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Century of Change

In the years between 1850 and 1950 the world changed, more than in all the centuries of history. In that time, the Industrial Revolution took root in the imaginations and talents of the American people.

America had started its national life with the advantage of many cutures being exchanged
among her citizens. American history began with the momentum of centuries
of discovery and experiment by others.

The people who went to America took to her shores faith, courage and a sense of
wonder and curiosity ... the qualities that gave The United States a national spirit.
That spirit began to flower during the "Century of Change."

These human qualities shared by Americans are important in understanding how
The United States became the modern nation it is today.

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Century of Change

In the years between 1850 and 1950 the world changed, more than in all the centuries of
history. In thaat time, the Industrial Revolution took root in the imaginations of the
American people.

America had started its national life with the advantage of many cultures being exchanged
among her citizens. American history began with the momentum of centuries of discovery
and experiment by others. The people who went to America took to her shores
faith, courage and a sense of wonder and curiosity ... the qualities that gave The
United States a national spirit. That spirit began to flower during the "Century of Change."

These human qualities shared by Americans are important in understanding how
The United States became the modern nation it is today.

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Chester, CT

Nestled in the rolling hills of the Connecticut River Valley, Chester is a lovely New England village. The charming winding roads, interesting shops, and friendly people greet the visitor and resident alike. Originally known as Pattaquonk Quarter, Chester was settled in 1692. Many mills sprang up as settlers established permanent homes and Chester became the Fourth Parish of Saybrook. By 1836, it became an independent town. Travel in the early days was by river, so the ship-building industry was an important part of the town’s beginnings. Several modern marinas now dot the riverfront, as well as two yacht clubs.

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Chicago Jazz Ensemble

Founded by the late Jazz Composer, William Russo, the Chicago Jazz Ensemble specializes in the repertories of Duke Ellington, Stan Kenton and other great bands that have forged the American big band Jazz Heritage. Before our show begins, we take you on a journey spanning the history of the Chicago Jazz scene, and honoring the cultural history of this club.

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China’s Mega Dam

Employing over forty thousand people, it’s China’s biggest project since the Great Wall. From the groundbreaking to the completion of the world’s largest ship docks, this film chronicles the progress and price for the world’s biggest and most controversial dam. This is the story of the Three Gorges Project. China’s Mega Dam!

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China’s Mega Dam

Employing over forty thousand people, it’s China’s biggest project since the Great Wall. From the groundbreaking to the completion of the world’s largest ship docks, this film chronicles the progress and price for the world’s biggest and most controversial dam. This is the story of the Three Gorges Project. China’s Mega Dam!

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Chocolate

If you’re young at heart, you might dream of working in a candy or chocolate factory. Oh, how sweet it would be. Well, at least for a little while.

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Christianity

It began as an obscure movement and grew to become the single largest religion in history of the world----moving from the streets of Jerusalem to the far reaches of the globe. This is the incredible story of the people who despite persecution, founded a religion, redefined God and changed the world forever.

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City Confidential - Farmington Michigan

Paul Winfield -

Farmington Hills Michigan, historic homes, pleasant parks and friendly folks on the outskirts of the motor city, Farmington hills is everything Detroit is not.

Elegant farmhouses, victorian cottages, and greek revival homes sit comfortably on perfectly groomed yards. The town square is as all American as apple pie or a shiny new chevy. It's a place where people come to raise a family, renovate an old home and, ease gracefully into a small town lifestyle of kids, scooters and icecream. A conservative family friendly little town.

Farmington hills doesn't have the big money scandals of Gross Point, or the down and dirty action of crime ridden Detroit or at least, it didn't like to think so.

But on August 23rd 1995 when a beautiful college coed went missing, Farmington hills discovered that even the most wholesome face can conceal a sorted secret. A secret that would reveal more about Farmington hills then the town would ever want to know.

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Civil War

Less than two years later, General William Tecumseh Sherman scorched a path of destruction across Georgia that ended with the capture of Savannah. In December of 1864, Sherman offered the port city to President Lincoln as a Christmas gift. Union victory was near.

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Clearing Clutter

Twenty years ago, in 1990, Declan Treacy invented the International Clear Your Desk! Day and officially declared a one-man war on unnecessary paperwork. That war still rages, like the War of the Sexes it is an eternal contest – a few local victories or truces but no overall conflict resolution is ever likely.

Two thousand years ago, polo had already been played for six hundred years but another century would pass before paper would be invented by the Chinese.

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Cleveland Botanical Garden

Comprising 3,400 shimmering glass panels, the new conservatory at the Cleveland Botanical Garden resembles a giant three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. The spectacular structure, the centerpiece of a $37 million expansion, encompasses two unique ecosystems. These diametrically opposed environments house many unusual animals and more than 350 species of plants.

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Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption

In the moderately populated but energy-intensive US, buildings consume 36% of the country’s energy supply and each year run up an energy bill of nearly $200 billion. Commercial buildings alone have an annual bill of $80 billion. Aside from being expensive, energy takes a tremendous toll on the environment; the energy that powers our appliances and heats, cools and lights our buildings produces 500 million tons of carbon dioxide a year, with two tons of carbon for every person in the US. Yet studies show that the energy efficiency of buildings could double by 2020, cutting carbon emissions in half and saving $100 billion a year.

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Computers

Today, desktop computer designs are flirting with clock speeds of 300 MHZ, unheard of just a year ago. However, to keep a computer’s design both simple and affordable, its system bus--where the memory and certain peripherals hang out--typically dawdles along at a fraction of the processor’s speed. Because of the design and cost constraints, it’s going to be difficult for even faster systems to realize significant gains in performance.

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Congaree National Park narration

IT IS A PLACE OF CONSTANT CHANGE. OF WOOD AND WATER, SUNLIGHT AND SHADE. THIS IS CONGAREE NATIONAL PARK.

NOT FAR FROM SOUTH CAROLINA’S STATE CAPITOL, THIS MAJESTIC WILDERNESS OF TOWERING TREES IS A SANCTUARY. FOR WILDLIFE… FOR CHAMPION TREES… FOR VISITORS FROM AROUND THE WORLD.

DAY BY DAY, SEASON BY SEASON, THIS FLOODPLAIN FOREST CHANGES--SHAPED AND RESHAPED BY WATER. A NEW PLACE TO EXPLORE…EACH TIME YOU RETURN..

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Congo Gorilla Forest

Congo Gorilla Forest provides its animals with a rich, physical environment, but it doesn't stop there. The vision behind "Congo Gorilla Forest" is important to more than the gorillas. It's a powerful experience for every visitor who comes to see them. This exhibit is about presenting all of us with choices. A revolutionary component gives visitors a choice about how their entrance fee should be spent. Presenting them with a variety of field projects to support. They are helping save gorillas, which are under threat in the wild. Every day, gorillas are killed as part of the bushmeat trade. The commercial hunting of forest animals, for food. Lowland Gorillas are being forced to the edge of existence. Day after day, this express train travels into the capital of the Republic of Cameroon. It's carrying bags of slaughtered wildlife from the forests. As it arrives, traders drop the bags of bushmeat down outside the market. It's illegal, but there's seldom anyone around to do anything about it. And it's not just happening in Cameroon. Scenes like these are repeated in cities around Central and West Africa. As long as people have lived in African forests, they've hunted for food, but while they once hunted to feed themselves, their families and local communities, many now hunt to supply an ever-growing urban demand for what has become 'status' food.

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Cosmic Origins

COSMIC ORIGINS
Documentary narration. Voice under for visuals.

NARRATOR:
This is the story of a small planet in space called Earth.
Today it has mighty oceans; scorched deserts; and frozen wildernesses.
It supports a multitude of diverse creatures, and is home to more than 6 billion people and their technological civilization.

But how did all this come about? Where do we come from?

Until recently, Earth and its lifeforms were a mystery. Like a huge unpainted canvas, little was known about the origin of Earth and its inhabitants.
But today, we have a rough idea of what happened.
It began – with a bang

About 12 billion years ago, scientists think, from a singular explosion, the universe was born. In those first moments, intensely hot hydrogen and helium raced outward – thinning, cooling, and clumping into vast, organized structures.
Within a few billion years, countless galaxies had emerged. Each one containing hundreds of billions of stars - constantly changing in cycles of birth, death and rebirth. In one of these galaxies, about 5 billions years ago, one average-sized star, our sun, captured in its gravitational field the gas and dust that would become 9 planets.

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Cosmic Origins 2

This is the story of a small planet in space called Earth. Today it has mighty oceans; scorched deserts; and frozen wildernesses. It supports a multitude of diverse creatures, and is home to more than 7 billion people and their technological civilization. But how did all this come about? Where do we come from? Until recently, Earth and its lifeforms were a mystery. Like a huge unpainted canvas, little was known about the origin of Earth and its inhabitants. But today, we have a rough idea of what happened. It began – with a bang. About 14 billion years ago, scientists think, an extraordinary event occurred. From a singular explosion, the universe was born. In those first moments, intensely hot hydrogen and helium raced outward – thinning, cooling, and clumping into vast, organized structures. Within a few billion years, countless galaxies had emerged, each one containing hundreds of billions of stars, constantly changing in cycles of birth, death and rebirth. In one of these galaxies, about 5 billion years ago, one average-sized star, our sun, captured in its gravitational field the gas and dust that would become 8 planets. One of these worlds, was Earth.

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Couples

Like animals in the ark, most of us march through life two by two. Though about half of first marriages end in divorce, we still believe that pleasure comes in pairs. Even first couples famous for their foibles-Franklin and Eleanor, Jack & Jackie, Bill and Hilary have taught us that every relationship has its own raison d’être, its own learning curve and its own risks and rewards.

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Croatia's National Parks

The squirrel-like door mice often move into the safety of abandoned woodpecker holes. The door mice have made their nest within, where their babies sleep safe and sound on a soft bed of leaves. This loft nursery has the practical advantage of being near the open-air larder, with seasonal produce within easy reach.

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Cyclone Of Bangladesh

The cyclone of November 12, 1970 in Bangladesh, is widely considered to be the worst natural disaster of the 20th century. Between 300,000 and 500,000 residents of this dangerously poised, ecologically unsound country were killed by a combination of wind and water.

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Cyprus

This grand structure was built in Hellenistic times and modified by the Romans in the 2nd century. On these stepped seats, crowds would cheer on gladiators in the era of Roman blood sports. The ruined city of Koreon has been a key in Cypriot history since the Neanderthal times. Today, it is the island's most spectacular archaeological site.

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Czechoslovakia

The callous invasion of August 20, 1968 seems to us, much more than simply another Czech disaster--or simply an invasion at all. August 20th sees but the latest step in a macabre dance in which the Czech people have been whirled since 1918, the year they declared themselves a republic. There appears, in our view, a horrifying rhythm: From shadow to liberty, they dance...again into shadow, then brief liberty, and shadow once again. A last, brief flourish of liberty, and then--August 20th, 1968. It is a sadly poetic cycle, seemingly without end.

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D Day

I took a walk along the historic coast of Normandy in the country of France. It was a lovely day for strolling along the seashore. Men were sleeping on the sand, some of them sleeping forever. Men were floating in the water, but hey didn't know they were in the water, for they were dead.
The water was full of squishy little jellyfish about the size of a man's hand. Millions of them. In the center of each of them was a green design exactly like a four-leaved clover. The good-luck emblem. Sure. Hell, yes.
I walked for a mile and a half along the water's edge of our many-miled invasion beach. I walked slowly, for the detail on that beach was infinite.
The wreckage was vast and startling. The awful waste and destruction of war, even aside from the loss of human life, has always been one of its outstanding features to those who are in it. Anything and everything is expendable. And we did expend on our beachhead in Normandy during those first few hours.

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DaVinci Code II

Jan. 8, 2008 -- Another Da Vinci code is emerging from Leonardo's masterpieces, according to a forthcoming book by group of Da Vinci theorists who believe that biblical images are hidden within the master's artworks.
Worthy of a Dan Brown novel, the claim identifies Leonardo's mirror writing as the key to unlocking the code.
The Renaissance genius, who lived between 1452 and 1519, filled thousands of manuscript pages with a unique handwriting that flowed from right to left and reversed all the letters.
Scholars have believed that the artist developed this impossible writing simply because a left-handed Leonardo would have evolved a style of handwriting efficient for him.
But, according to Hugo Conti, a self-taught Argentinian historian who leads a mysterious group called "The Mirror of The Sacred Scriptures and Paintings," the writings conceal much more -- a key to secret images.
"It is easy to find invisible images in Leonardo's paintings. Many of his characters seem to be staring into space. In reality, they are indicating where one must place the mirror to visualize the images," Conti told Discovery News.

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Death During Filming

Long after their time is up, movie stars live on through DVDs and cable reruns. But the stars on this list died before completing a project, leaving directors in an emotional and logistical bind, and forever attaching a dark footnote to a movie's history. In some cases the movie was canceled, or the star was recast, while in others production moved forward with some creative editing.

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Death Valley

The largest national park south of Alaska, Death Valley is known for extremes: It is North America's driest and hottest spot (with fewer than two inches/five centimeters of rainfall annually and a record high of 134°F), and has the lowest elevation on the continent—282 feet below sea level. Even with its extremes, the park still receives nearly a million visitors each year.
In 1849 emigrants bound for California's gold fields strayed into the 120-mile long basin, enduring a two-month ordeal of "hunger and thirst and an awful silence." One of the last to leave looked down from a mountain at the narrow valley and said, "Good-bye, Death Valley."

The moniker belies the beauty in this vast graben, the geological term for a sunken fragment of the Earth's crust. Here are rocks sculptured by erosion, richly tinted mudstone hills and canyons, luminous sand dunes, lush oases, and a 200-square-mile salt pan surrounded by mountains, one of America's greatest vertical rises. In some years spring rains trigger wildflower blooms amid more than a thousand varieties of plants.

Native Americans, most recently the Shoshone, found ways to adapt to the more recent and forbidding desert conditions that exist here now. Rock art and artifacts indicate a human presence dating back at least 9,000 years.
From 1883 to 1889, wagon teams hauled powdery white borax from mines since fallen to ruin, an enterprise that spread word of Death Valley's striking landscapes, deep solitude, and crystalline air.

As night falls, Death Valley's elusive populations of bobcats, kit foxes, and rodents venture out. Far above on steep mountain slopes, desert bighorn sheep forage among Joshua trees, scrubby junipers, and pines, while hawks soar on thermals rising into vivid blue, cloudless skies.

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Declaration of Independence

On July 2nd, the Continental Congress voted in favor of Lee’s resolution for independence in a near-unanimous vote. On that day, John Adams wrote to his wife Abigail that July 2 “will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival” and that the celebration should include “Pomp and Parade…Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other.” On July 4th, the Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence, which had been written largely by Jefferson. Though the vote for actual independence took place on July 2nd, from then on the 4th became the day that was celebrated as the birth of American independence.

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Decoding Nazi Secrets

By mid-1940, the German Army had conquered all of western Europe. Hitler was tightening the noose around Britain. In the Atlantic, German U-boats were decimating Allied convoys, threatening to cut off Britain's only lifeline. But Churchill had a secret weapon, the strangest military establishment in the world. Crossword fanatics, chess champions, mathematicians, students and professors, Americans and British, all came here with one common aim: to unlock the secrets of the Enigma, a machine that concealed Germany's war plans in seemingly unbreakable code. If Enigma could be penetrated, everything Hitler plotted would be known in advance. At Bletchley Park, there unfolded one of the most astonishing exploits of the Second World War.

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Decoding Nazi Secrets

By mid-1940, the German Army had conquered all of western Europe. Hitler was tightening the noose around Britain. In the Atlantic, German U-boats were decimating Allied convoys, threatening to cut off Britain's only lifeline. But Churchill had a secret weapon, the strangest military establishment in the world. Crossword fanatics, chess champions, mathematicians, students and professors, Americans and British, all came here with one common aim: to unlock the secrets of the Enigma, a machine that concealed Germany's war plans in seemingly unbreakable code. If Enigma could be penetrated, everything Hitler plotted would be known in advance. At Bletchley Park, there unfolded one of the most astonishing exploits of the Second World War. Many here had never seen a code before, yet it was their job to find a way to crack Enigma. In the process, they devised ingenious codebreaking machines that were forerunners of the modern computer. But everything they did remained classified for 30 years.

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Deer

The deer approaches the opening, unaware of the cougar's presence. Slowly and quietly, Shuka creeps toward his prey. Hearing a twig crack, the deer turns and faces impending danger. There is no time to run before the six-foot-long, 200 pound male cougar pounces on its back and bites its neck. The deer, a favorite food of the cougar has met its match. He has fallen victim to the balance of nature.

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Deer

The deer approaches the opening, unaware of the cougar's presence. Slowly and quietly, Shuka creeps toward his prey. Hearing a twig crack, the deer turns and faces impending danger. There is no time to run before the six-foot-long, 200 pound male cougar pounces on its back and bites its neck. The deer, a favorite food of the cougar has met its match. He has fallen victim to the balance of nature.

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Design For Humanity Award

In a world of so much rhetoric and so little action, the discovery of real achievement, gives us hope that life on this earth may be changed for the better -- that if a small group of individuals with some good ideas, a sincere desire to help other people, and a lot of hard work can succeed in bringing a community back to life, it may serve as an inspiration for all of us to follow in their footsteps. Throughout the United States, for the past several decades, virtually all of our cities have experienced considerable decline -- most visibly, in their historic areas. Politicians, city planners, and other interested parties have discussed the problem endlessly...

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Diamond Lies

Why are diamonds a valuable investment? Is it because they are so rare? Anyone who understands how economics works, knows that price is often the result of demand. A product is only priced in such a way as to provide both profit and also perceived value in the market place. If bananas where considered like gold, then their price would reflect that and they would be sky high, despite the fact that they cost about the same to obtain and also market.

Diamonds are like that. They are part of a marketing campaign. About 100 years ago diamonds were a real rare find, that only royalty could afford and purchase. Then suddenly in the mines of South Africa, that all changed. So many diamonds were found that miners could swim in them like large ponds of water. Suddenly, the price of diamonds plunged.

A man called Cecil Rhodes saw spinning dollar signs in his eyes, like a cartoon character, and he bought up huge sums of the now cheap diamonds. His company’s name was DeBeers, and they established a monopoly on diamonds and persuaded almost every diamond producing nation in the world to do business only with DeBeers. Cecil Rhodes and his company now owned over 80% of all the diamonds in the world; past, present and future.

The world has changed since those days and DeBeers now only has about a 65% hold on all diamonds, but they also hoard diamonds. They drive the price up and keep huge storehouses of diamonds that could be several decades out of the Earth by the time you put that ring on her finger. But the brainwashing was soon to follow, for that is how true selling works. Find a need and fill it is marginally honest, but create a need and fill it is a fine alternative if the first one doesn’t pan out.

Marketing strategist then decided they needed to make everyone believe a common perception, despite the inherent debt it would create for someone who had fallen in love. They created the marriage market. Now, diamonds are the proper way to express love. And yet, they don’t cost anywhere near what you pay for them.

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Diamonds

Today, seventy percent of the world’s rough diamonds pass through the central selling organization, the ESO, established by Debiers at Charterhouse Street in London. To regulate the flow of diamonds and maintain stability of prices on the world market, diamonds are first classified and valued. Here, along the north wall, in natural light, experts sort stones into more than five thousand different categories; based on size, shape, quality and color.

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Diamonds 2

Diamonds are pure or nearly pure carbon, blessed with three extraordinary qualities: First, a diamond is the purest of earth's gemstones, composed of a single unadulterated element. Second, it is the hardest transparent substance known to man. However, sharp impact may cause damage to a diamond. Third, a diamond has unique powers of light reflection. When cut to proper proportions, it gathers light within itself, sending it back in a shower of fire and brilliance.

These qualities make a diamond ring the perfect symbol of engagement. To support the promise behind the eternal symbol, every Tiffany & Co. solitaire diamond comes with a Tiffany & Co. Diamond Certificate that is your guarantee of quality.

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Did we Invent God?

Did God invent humanity? Or did we invent God? Pioneering scientists are trekking across new frontiers of neuroscience that may at last provide an answer to this ancient mystery. Neuroscientists are recreating out of body experiences in virtual reality laboratories to uncover what happens to the brain during profoundly spiritual journeys.

Yet, most of us do not need to leave our bodies to sense the divine. Psychologists are working to figure out why we sense a hidden supernatural plane in the world around us. Their work suggests that belief in the spiritual takes hold a young age, never leaves us, and is essential to how our highly developed brains see the world.

This supernatural sense might be something more than just a byproduct of an intelligent mind, because a groundbreaking experiment with chimpanzees suggests that belief in God is unique to humans.

But what causes some to see the hand of God in humanity and the world around us, where others see randomness and chance? One psychologist believes she knows why, because her work is showing that our emotional states physically change how we see patterns of events in the world.

Our experience of God may be exclusively confined to our brains. But since our brains are where we experience reality, does imagining God make God real? One neuroscientist is trying to find the answer by peering into the human mind, and seeing what God really looks like!

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Dinosaur Wars

For more than a century, Americans have had a love affair with dinosaurs. Extinct for millions of years, they were barely known until giant, fossil bones were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century. Two American scientists, Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, led the way to many of these discoveries, at the forefront of the young field of paleontology.

Cope and Marsh shed light on the deep past in a way no one had ever been able to do before. They unearthed more than 130 dinosaur species and some of the first fossil evidence supporting Darwin’s new theory of evolution. Cope and Marsh locked horns for decades, in one of the most bitter scientific rivalries in American history. Constantly vying for leadership in their young field, they competed ruthlessly to secure gigantic bones in the American West. They put American science on the world stage and nearly destroyed one another in the process.

In the summer of 1868, a small group of scientists boarded a Union Pacific train for a sightseeing excursion through the heart of the newly-opened American West.

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Dinosaur Wars

For more than a century, Americans have had a love affair with dinosaurs. Extinct for millions of years, they were barely known until giant, fossil bones were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century. Two American scientists, Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, led the way to many of these discoveries, at the forefront of the young field of paleontology.

Cope and Marsh shed light on the deep past in a way no one had ever been able to do before. They unearthed more than 130 dinosaur species and some of the first fossil evidence supporting Darwin’s new theory of evolution. Cope and Marsh locked horns for decades, in one of the most bitter scientific rivalries in American history. Constantly vying for leadership in their young field, they competed ruthlessly to secure gigantic bones in the American West. They put American science on the world stage and nearly destroyed one another in the process.

In the summer of 1868, a small group of scientists boarded a Union Pacific train for a sightseeing excursion through the heart of the newly-opened American West.

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Dinosaurs

For more than a century, Americans have had a love affair with dinosaurs. Extinct for millions of years, they were barely known until giant, fossil bones were discovered in the mid-nineteenth century.

Two American scientists, Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, led the way to many of these discoveries, at the forefront of the young field of paleontology.

Cope and Marsh shed light on the deep past in a way no one had ever been able to do before. They unearthed more than 130 dinosaur species and some of the first fossil evidence supporting Darwin’s new theory of evolution.

Cope and Marsh locked horns for decades, in one of the most bitter scientific rivalries in American history. Constantly vying for leadership in their young field, they competed ruthlessly to secure gigantic bones in the American West. They put American science on the world stage and nearly destroyed one another in the process.

In the summer of 1868, a small group of scientists boarded a Union Pacific train for a sightseeing excursion through the heart of the newly-opened American West.

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Dinosaurs

The evidence that birds descended from dinosaurs -- indeed are dinosaurs—has become conclusive for most paleontologists and evolutionary biologists. The theory had fallen out of favor in the early 20th century because, although theropods and birds share a great many features, no dinosaurs appeared to have a furcula, or wishbone.

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Dinosaurs 2

They were awesome creatures, the great reptiles of eons and eras past. To modern eyes, they appear magnificent ... grotesque ... and terrifying. And in fact, it seems inconceivable that their dominance of the planet could ever have ended. But end it did ... at the hands of an even mightier adversary: Change. It was, of course, nature that dealt the most severe blows. Over the yawning ages, the great beasts were beset in turn by drought ... by flood ... by fire ... and ultimately, by ice. Nimbler, more resourceful species were able to adapt to these catastrophically shifting conditions, and survived. But the colossal reptiles were simply too ponderous, too inflexible to adapt.

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Discovery Channel – “When Dinosaurs Ruled The Earth”

In nature, disaster is a constant companion and death comes in many guises. Dinosaurs now trapped by the fire- flee in panic. Most will survive, but for the creatures that perish, the conflict is over. For those that remain, what lies ahead is 30 million years of evolution. Triggered by unseen forces, the environment will gradually change and so will the dinosaurs that live here. In the distant future, the offspring of the young femikas will grow bigger, weirder and even more perplexing. The raptors will stay small, agile and quick, but they’ll get smarter and the kin of the Steggasours will become the most famous creature in North America.

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Divers

Carrying out a 1,500-year-old tradition, this woman prepares to dive for abalones, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, and octopuses at Cheju Island off Korea’s southern tip. Cheju’s female divers, known as “haenyo”, begin honing their skills at the age of ten, learning to dive as deep as 60 feet and to hold their breath for up to two minutes. As recently as the 1930s, they numbered more than 20,000. Now only about 3,000--most in their 50s and 60s--remain, as their better-educated daughters find work that is less physically demanding.

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Documentary - 1933

1933 was dark all over the world.

Japan was already in Manchuria, and the League of Nations was dying in
Geneva.

In Germany, the Reichstag fire was history, so was the Weimar Republic.

In Italy, Benito Mussolini had translated a people’s search for security into
savage conquest.

In rich, fertile America, fear and uncertainty lay heavy upon the land.

Franklin D. Roosevelt stood beside Chief Justice Heughes on the steps of the
Capitol on that raw afternoon of March 4th, and a nation with 15 million
unemployed…listened.

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Dolphins

Gliding with uncanny grace, bottlenose dolphins pass the scalloped shadow of a mountain peak in Fiordland, New Zealand's largest national park. Fiordland's dolphins may spend their entire lives in a single fiord -- denizens of an isolated world as dramatic above water as it is below. The jutting fist of Mitre Peak snags a passing cloud high above Milford Sound. Rising more than a mile up from the sea, this peak is the icon of a land with a history of transient seekers -- for sealskins, gold, the glory of discovery, and the solace of untrammeled wilderness.

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Dolphins 2

This spectacular display of airtime by these dusky dolphins actually has a practical purpose. These are scouts looking for food. And this is only half the operation. Here's the underwater scout patrol. Sending out dolphin sonar pings to locate a meal. The first dolphin airborne patrol does its best to stake out the banquet.

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Drift Nets

Drift nets can be deadly for many ocean creatures who become entangled in an invisible “wall” of netting. Along the U.S. East Coast, a swordfish drift-net fishery has historically entangled large numbers of marine mammals, including the highly endangered North Atlantic right whales and six species of dolphin. When the death rate of marine mammals is unacceptably high, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1994 requires the creation of a team composed of scientists and representatives of the fishing industry, environmental organizations, and state and federal agencies.

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Dublin

James Joyce once said that he wanted to create a picture of Dublin so complete that if the city one day disappeared, it could be reconstructed entirely from his book Ulysses. He succeeded. The spirit of James Joyce is evident everywhere in bustling, booming modern Dublin, from the bronze statue of him leaning casually on his walking stick at the intersection of busy O’Connell Street and Earl Street to such famous landmarks as St. Stephen’s Green, University College, and the Martello Tower in the nearby suburb of Sandycove. With a bit of imagination and some good walking shoes, you can virtually step into the pages of Ulysses to follow Leopold Bloom on his fictional 18-hour odyssey through Dublin on June 16, 1904.

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Dublin 2

Home over the centuries to great writers like Jonathan Swift, George Bernard Shaw and James Joyce. Dublin has always been a center of the arts. Now, with the still roaring Celtic Tiger economy to support it, Ireland's Capital City is the bustling home of ever-burgeoning business, important cultural institutions, lively nightlife and a youthful, energetic population of both natives and newcomers.

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Earthquake

Pulled and pushed by forces deep within the planet, the Pacific plate is sliding northwest past North America at an average of about 2 inches a year - roughly the same rate as fingernails grow.
But movement along the fault usually occurs in bursts. Along most of the fault, the colder, more rigid rocks near the earth‘s surface resist the plate motions. Eventually, enough strain develops along a segment of the fault to overcome the resistance. en, in geologic terms, that stretch of the fault “breaks,” “fails,” or “ruptures” and a segment of the crust riding the Pacific plate surges north, creating an earthquake.

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Earthquakes

All around the world, mountains are on the rise. And in few places, this does happen more swiftly than in highly populated Southern California, where shifting tectonic plates cause periodic catastrophe. Each earthquake raises the mountains a few inches sometimes feet, which makes the place a Mecca for geothermologists like Dr. Frank Wireick.
But the mountains here are falling as fast as they are rising. Days of rain sometimes trigger a disaster called a rotational slide, because it moves along a subsurface plain like jelly sliding from a spoon. In this small town along the coastline, most residents were warned of the dangers before moving in, but chose to live here anyway due to the panoramic view.

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Earthquakes - National Geographic

Pulled and pushed by forces deep within the planet, the Pacific plate is sliding northwest past North America at an average of about 2 inches a year - roughly the same rate as fingernails grow. But movement along the fault usually occurs in bursts. Along most of the fault, the colder, more rigid rocks near the earth’s surface resist the plate motions. Eventually, enough strain develops along a segment of the fault to overcome the resistance. Then, in geologic terms, that stretch of the fault "breaks," "fails," or "ruptures" and segments of the crust riding the Pacific plate surge north, creating an earthquake. In the magnitude 7.7 San Francisco earthquake of 1906, which killed more than 3,000 people, a 270-mile-long segment of the San Andreas from south of San Juan Bautista to Cape Mendocino surged northward as much as 21 feet in a few seconds. Half a century earlier in 1857, during a similar but little known 7.8 quake, much of coastal , southern California drifted north.

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Egypt

To modern eyes, the people of ancient Egypt seem bearers of some higher civilization...whose sources lay in another world. While populations elsewhere, still in their infancy, were groping their way out of the stone age, the Egyptians seem to have been born adult. They soon broke through the barriers of human possibility, six thousand years ago, almost in virtue of experiences sustained in some other extraordinarily civilized world. The fact that other people developed at much slower rates, reinforces the feeling that the people of the “planet Egypt” anticipated the history of the world by two thousand years.

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Egypt 2

Egypt has always been a land of mystery and magic -- a land different from all others, difficult to understand, apart and alien, yet strangely fascinating. It was the most self-contained of all the countries of the ancient world; it lived its own life, practiced its own religion, and made up its own government with hardly any outside interference either from or upon other civilizations.

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Einstein

The life of Albert Einstein has a dramatic quality that does not rest exclusively on
his "Theory of Relativity." For the extravagant timing of history linked him with three
shattering developments of the Twentieth Century: the rise of modern Germany;
the birth of nuclear weapons; and the growth of Zionism. Their impact on his simple genius
combined to drive him into contact with the affairs of the world, for which he had little taste.

The result would have made him a unique historical figure, even if he had not altered
man's ideas of the physial world.

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Einstein

The life of Albert Einstein has a dramatic quality that doesn't rest exclusively on his "Theory of Relativity." For the extravagant timing of history linked him with three shattering developments of the Twentieth Century: the rise of modern Germany; the birth of nuclear weapons; and the growth of Zionism. Their impact on his simple genus combined to drive him into contact with the affairs of the world, for which he had little taste.

The result would have made him a unique historical figure, even if he had not radically altered
man's ideas of the physical world.

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Einstein

The life of Albert Einstein has a dramatic quality that doesn't rest exclusively on his
"Theory of Relativity." For the extravagant timing of history linked him with three shattering
developments of the Twentieth Century: the rise of modern Germany; the birth of nuclear
weapons; and the growth of Zionism.

Their impact on his simple genius combined to drive him into contact with the affairs of the world, for which he had little taste. The result would have made him a unique historical figure,
even if he had not radically altered man's ideas of the physical world.

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Einstein

The life of Albert Einstein had a dramatic quality that doesn't rest only on his
"Theory of Relativity," for the extravagant timing of history linked him with three
shattering developments of the Twentieth Century: the rise of modernGermany;
the birth of nuclear weapons; and the growth of Zionism.

Their impact on his simple genius drove him into contact with the affairs of the world,
for which he had little taste.

This alone made him a unique historical figure,
even if he had not altered Man's ideas of the physical world.

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Einstein

The life of Albert Einstein had a dramatic quality the doesn't rest only on his
"Theory of Relativity," forthe extravagant timing of history linked him with three
shattering developments of the Twentieth Century: the rise of moder Germany;
the birth of nuclear weapons; and the growth of Zionism.

Their impact on his simple genius drove him into contact with the affairs of the world,
for which he had little taste. This alone made him a unique historical figure, even if
he had not altered man's ideas of the physical world.

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Einstein

The life of Albert Einstein had a dramatic quality that doesn't rest only on his "Theory of Relativity," for the extravagant timing of history linked him with three shattering developments
of the Twentieth Century: the rise of modern Germany; the birth of nuclear weapons; and the
growth of Zionism.

Their impact on his simple genius drove him into contact with the affairs of the world,
for which he had little taste. This alone made him a unique historical figure, even if he
had not altered man's ideas of the physical world.

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printer friendly version edit
Einstein

The life of Albert Einstein had a dramatic quality that doesn't rest only on his "Theory of
Relativity," for the extravagant timing of history linked him with three shattering developments of the Twentieth Century: the rise of modern Germany; the birth of nuclear weapons; and the growth of Zionism.

Their impact on his simple genius drove him into contact with the affairs of the world,
for which he had little taste This alone made him a unique historical figure, even if he had not altered man's ideas of the physical world.

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printer friendly version edit
Einstein

The life of Albert Einstein had a dramatic quality that doesn't rest only on his
"Theory of Relativity," for the extravagant timing of history linked him with three shattering
developments of the Twentieth Century: the rise of modern Germany; the birth of nuclear weapons; and the growth of Zionism.

Their impact on his simple genius drove him into contact with the affairs of the world,
for which he had little taste. This alone made him a unique historical figure, even if he
had not altered man's ideas of the physical world.

Back to top
printer friendly version edit
Einstein

The life of Albert Einstein had a dramatic quality that doesn't rest only on his "Theory of
Relativity," for the extravagant timing of history linked him with three shattering
developments of the Twentieth Century: the rise of modern Germany; the birth of
nuclear weapons; and the growth of Zionism.

Their impact on his simple genius drove him into contact with the affairs of the world,
for which he had litttle taste. This alone made him a unique historical figure, even if
he had not altered man's ideas of the physical world.

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Elephants

Bonding over the mineral-rich mud in the hole at their feet, an older female places her trunk into a juvenile’s mouth. Elephants dig relentlessly with their tusks and trunks in the muck at Dzanga Bai, mining the substrata for salt and other minerals to supplement their diet of leaves, bark, grasses, and fruit.

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Elephants

With notoriously bad eyesight, forest elephants tend to follow their trunks, using the appendage as a blind person might use fingertips on a stranger’s face--to identify, visualize, gather clues, communicate. From infancy, elephants entwine their trunks in play, establishing bonds of kinship while storing vital information--from smells and texture to the muscular strength of their playmates. Later, these games become more aggressive, especially among males, which grapple and joust with each other in order to establish dominance.

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Elephants 2

With notoriously bad eyesight, forest elephants tend to follow their trunks, using the appendage as a blind person might use fingertips on a stranger’s face--to identify, visualize, gather clues, communicate. From infancy, elephants entwine their trunks in play, establishing bonds of kinship while storing vital information--from smells and texture to the muscular strength of their playmates. Later, these games become more aggressive, especially among males, which grapple and joust with each other in order to establish dominance.

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Ellis Island

For many immigrants, the voyage to Ellis Island meant selling all personal possessions plus additional debt, just to buy the fare. After weeks crowded into the claustrophobic steerage of a ship on the stormy Atlantic, Ellis Island represented the final hurdle to The American Dream.

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Ellis Island

From 1892 to 1954, over twelve million immigrants entered the United States through the portal of Ellis Island, a small island in New York Harbor. Ellis Island is located in the upper bay just off the New Jersey coast, within the shadow of the Statue of Liberty. Through the years, this gateway to the new world was enlarged from its original 3.3 acres to 27.5 acres by landfill supposedly obtained from the ballast of ships, excess earth from the construction of the New York City subway system and elsewhere.

Before being designated as the site of one of the first Federal immigration station by President Benjamin Harrison in 1890, Ellis Island had a varied history. The local Indian tribes had called it "Kioshk" or Gull Island. Due to its rich and abundant oyster beds and plentiful and profitable shad runs, it was known as Oyster Island for many generations during the Dutch and English colonial periods. By the time Samuel Ellis became the island's private owner in the 1770's, the island had been called Kioshk, Oyster, Dyre, Bucking and Anderson's Island. In this way, Ellis Island developed from a sandy island that barely rose above the high tide mark, into a hanging site for pirates, a harbor fort, ammunition and ordinance depot named Fort Gibson, and finally into an immigration station.

From 1794 to 1890 (pre-immigration station period), Ellis Island played a mostly uneventful but still important military role in United States history. When the British occupied New York City during the duration of the Revolutionary War, its large and powerful naval fleet was able to sail unimpeded directly into New York Harbor. Therefore, it was deemed critical by the United States Government that a series of coastal fortifications in New York Harbor be constructed just prior to the War of 1812.

After much legal haggling over ownership of the island, the Federal government purchased Ellis Island from New York State in 1808. Ellis Island was approved as a site for fortifications and on it was constructed a parapet for three tiers of circular guns, making the island part of the new harbor defense system that included Castle Clinton at the Battery, Castle Williams on Governor's Island, Fort Wood on Bedloe's Island and two earthworks forts at the entrance to New York Harbor at the Verrazano Narrows. The fort at Ellis Island was named Fort Gibson in honor of a brave officer killed during the War of 1812.

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Email Virus

Yesterday, millions of people were seduced by an offer of love online. Today, the cyber promise was a joke -- with a new e-mail offering humor. But for those who responded, the joke was on them. The e-mails contained a destructive computer program -- referred to as a worm, which is a type of virus. The so-called love bug was first detected in Asia and rapidly spread through electronic mail across the globe. Experts believe it may have started in the Philippines by a 23-year old computer hacker nicknamed "Spider."

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Empire of Their Own

The Jewish immigrants who founded and came to dominate the American film industry,
created an image of America out of their own idealism ... a vision that proved so powerful
that it came to shape the myths, values, traditions and archetypes of America herself.

For these men, prevented from entering the real corridors of gentility and power in America,
cut their lives to the pattern of American respectability as they saw it.

In the process, they created a new country, an 'empire of their own,' and colonized the
American imagination to such an extent, that this country came to be largely identified
by its movies.

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England

The notion of England as a gentle, fabled land freeze-framed some time in the 1930s when community life revolved around the post office, the country pub and the local vicarage has been erased by the juggernaut of the late-20th century and vast suburban sprawl. The heralded 'new' Britain, led by Labour Prime Minister Tony Blair, is being transformed from Thatcherite bleakscape into post-Diana cuddledom: the Queen and Prince Charles are coming on folksy, the Spice Girls are the new face of feminism and a couple of rude brothers with monobrows are the biggest posterboys around. Still, a country that gives a wig-wearing ex-junkie balladeer a knighthood must be doing something right.

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Enigma

By mid-1940, the German Army had conquered all of Western Europe ... Hitler was
tightening the noose around Britain ... German U-Boats were decimating Allied convoys, threatening to cut off Britain's only lifeline. But Churchill had a 'secret weapon,' the
strangest military establishment in the world!

Crossword fanatics, chess champions, mathematicians, students and professors,
American and British all came together with one common aim: to unlock the secret of
"Enigma," the machine that concealed Germany's war plans in seemingly unbreakable code. Many had never seen a code before; yet it was their job to crack "Enigma."
If "Enigma" could be penetrated, everything Hitler plotted would be known in advance!

At Bletchley Park there unfolded one of the most astonishing exploits of the Second World War! Everything they did remained classified for 30 years!

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Entertainment In Wartime

It was farewell to all the worries and cares of the day. When the Paramount Theatre opened its doors, we forgot about names like Hitler and Mussolini. It was time instead to unwind and dream a little. The Paramount introduced new young singers like Frank Sinatra, and showed films with big stars like Clark Gable and Betty Hutton. These were the times that tried mens’ souls, but the glitz and glamour of Hollywood kept us distracted and entertained. We retained our perspective, and most importantly, allowed ourselves to hold on to a national sense of humor.

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Entertainment In Wartime

It was farewell to all the worries and cares of the day. When the Paramount Theatre opened its doors, we forgot about names like Hitler and Mussolini. It was time instead to unwind and dream a little. The Paramount introduced new young singers like Frank Sinatra, and showed films with big stars like Clark Gable and Betty Hutton. These were the times that tried mens’ souls, but the glitz and glamour of Hollywood kept us distracted and entertained. We retained our perspective, and most importantly, allowed ourselves to hold on to a national sense of humor.

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Excerpt From: “The War” – PBS Production by Ken Burns

More than 16 million Americans served in the armed forces during the war. Fewer than a million ever saw serious combat. The infantry represented just 14 percent of the troops overseas. But wherever they fought – in North Africa or the South Pacific or Western Europe — the infantry bore the brunt of the fighting on the ground — and seven out of ten suffered casualties.
Those in the infantry — in the Army and Marines — endured hardships and horrors for which no training could ever have prepared them. The infantry was the workhorse of the military, not only faced with battling the enemy but also often asked to do physical labor at the front lines transporting the food, clothing, weapons and medicine needed to win the war. They experienced the war as no one else did.
As in many other units, the men in the infantry griped about the food, the conditions and their superiors.
In the mountains of Italy, the men learned to sleep while marching – it was “a kind of coma,” one remembered – and when they got a chance to lie down, they preferred to sleep on rocks rather than bare ground because rocks were relatively dry. For everyone, keeping dry was of the utmost importance.
Beyond the physical discomforts, the men in the infantry had to battle impossible odds.

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Fading Firecrown

Saving endangered species is a big job shadowed by big questions. Can we preserve them all? Should we even try? Researcher Erin Hagen doesn’t have the answers. For now, she’s doing what she can to help just one: the Juan Fernandez firecrown, a showy, highly curious hummingbird that hovers on the edge of extinction. The firecrown lives only on Robinson Crusoe Island, more than 400 miles off the coast of Chile.

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Fading Firecrown

Fading Firecrown

Saving endangered species is a big job shadowed by big questions. Can we preserve them all? Should we even try? Researcher Erin Hagen doesn’t have the answers. For now, she’s doing what she can to help just one: the Juan Fernandez firecrown, a showy, highly curious hummingbird that hovers on the edge of extinction. The firecrown lives only on Robinson Crusoe Island, more than 400 miles off the coast of Chile.

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Farming And Pesticides

Roundup's active ingredient, Glyphosate, is the most popular pesticide in the United States, partially because of the persistent rumor that it is benign. Roundup is relatively safe - it's not as bad as, say, depleted uranium - but that doesn't mean you want to go pouring it on your pancakes. Roundup was found on lettuce five months after it was applied. Not the most healthful salad dressing - although it may be fat-free. A recent study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Agency exposed some interesting information regarding its toxicity. 1. Roundup is manufactured by Monsanto, a company responsible for transforming the face of agriculture through genetically engineered seed. Monsanto, which is become something of a poster child for coldhearted corporate evil, developed and patented seeds resistant to Roundup so that farmers could apply the herbicide to their fields with no fear of killing mature crops. The majority of soybeans grown worldwide are now genetically modified, despite a poor understanding of the possible long-term implications. Genetic drift is putting organic farmers out of business, traditional seed stocks are dying out, and meanwhile Roundup sales have risen and Monsanto is suing farmers for patent infringement - including farmers who never bought the "Round-up Ready" seeds but whose fields were infected through pollen drift.

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Filmmaking In America

As she lifted her lamp beside the golden door to this new world, another lamp was about to light -- a new invention called a movie projector. It would illuminate a world of dreams. Dreams shared by Liberty’s anonymous millions, a few of whom would become the rulers of Hollywood’s fantasy world. In the picture palaces built by Zukor, Fox, Mayer, and others, the new Americans would find at last a common tongue in which to share their hopes and yearnings for a better life.

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Filmmaking In America 2

“The cinema has no boundary; it is a ribbon of dream,” Orson Welles said. It is a dream that knows no earthly border. The whole world has treasured it, storing away the image of Fred Astaire gliding across a ballroom floor ... Clark Gable sweeping Vivien Leigh up in his arms on a stairway to heaven ... Ingrid Bergman getting on that plane to Lisbon ... Garbo laughing ... Chaplin crying. The whole world watches each year as Hollywood rewards its own with Oscars. People still crowd premieres to see the stars, hurry to watch the movie crews on location all over the world. And in every country, people line up to see their favorite American films, new and old.

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Fire And Thunder

In the past 150 years, the tall grass prairie- the easternmost portion of the Great Plains - has been all but erased. Now, in the Flint Hills of Oklahoma, on land too rocky to plow, the nonprofit Nature Conservancy is transforming 37,000 acres of ranchland into the largest expanse of tall grass prairie yet set aside. This labored process has already proven its value - over 300 buffalo have returned, to graze and roam.

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Firefighting

The interior attack is one of the most effective fireground tactics. But to succeed, it means getting inside the building fast. This frequently means forcing entry. In our first program, we discussed conventional forcible entry -- that is, forcing entry by using a flathead axe -- into a structure where access is locked, blocked, or non-existent. Conventional entry using these tools relies on prying tactics. And while prying doors is still an important skill that every firefighter must master, the alarming rise in crime in this country, combined with advanced lock technology and increased security consciousness, have made prying tactics slower and less effective.

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Fires -- News Story

The Cerro Grande fire began as a "controlled burn"... Designed to limit the power of future wildfires by burning away brush from uninhabited rocky areas. But low humidity and sustained high winds of up 60 miles per hour -- fed the flames and spread the fire over more than 47,000 acres. Today, about 60 percent of the fire is contained. More than 1000 firefighters -- some from as far away as Montana and Oregon -- continue to battle the blaze, which has cost nearly $4 million to fight ... And caused about a billion dollars in damages.

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Food & Wine

Whether you're a professional sommelier or a budding gourmand, vacations built around the culinary arts are a perfect way to immerse yourself in a country or region. After all, you can learn as much about the history and ethos of a people from the methods and ingredients used in their cooking as you will from anything found in a book. Not to mention that culinary tours are perhaps the most, well, civilized way to travel. Yet they're still very much adventurous--not ones that elevate your heart rate or give you an adrenaline rush, but ones that still pose a challenge to your senses.

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France

The real enjoyment of visiting France does not come from an appreciation of its art or architecture, but from the enjoyment of the natural beauty of its people. The spirit of France is evident in every city and in every town. The French have a knack for enjoying life to the fullest, and you can sense it everywhere! Strolling down the Champs Elysee on any evening transforms one instantly into a sublimely romantic setting, complete with laughter, romance, the distant sounds of clattering dishes, and the wonderful aroma of freshly baked French breads.

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France 2

In France, every road leads to splendid food. From Flandres to the Pays Basque, from Normandie to Nice, from the Ardennes to southernmost Bigorre, the worthy hexagon is unequaled in its flavors. But more than that, it is a store of fine ingredients which produce not only thousands of good recipes, but also the rich fragrances steaming from a simmering pot in a homely country inn, the aroma of sausages and hams hanging in a corner of an alpine chalet in winter, the characteristic iodine and seaweed scents in a bustling seaside port.

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Furhter Human Evolution

Homo sapiens. The name for you, me, and every human being that exists on this planet. We evolved from Africa about 200,000 years ago, and carried on evolving until we became what we are today.

But are we still evolving? Well, the earth is predicted to be around 4.5 billion years old, so in the grand scale of things, our species is still very young. Other human-like creatures were around long before us. The oldest humanoid fossil dates back to 4.4 million years ago. But because we, as a race, have developed this modern world of technology, ultimately to make our lives easier, has this stopped us from evolving further?

Evolution is when genetic changes or adaptations occur when genes mutate and combine in different ways during reproduction. This is normally to help the species survive or reproduce more effectively. When these changes occur, they become more common across a population if they pose an advantage to survival. So if the purpose of evolution is to survive and reproduce, do we need to evolve any more? Are we above natural selection?

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Further Human Evolution

Homo sapiens. The name for you, me, and every human being that exists on this planet. We evolved from Africa about 200,000 years ago, and carried on evolving until we became what we are today.

But are we still evolving? Well, the earth is predicted to be around 4.5 billion years old, so in the grand scale of things, our species is still very young. Other human-like creatures were around long before us. The oldest humanoid fossil dates back to 4.4 million years ago. But because we, as a race, have developed this modern world of technology, ultimately to make our lives easier, has this stopped us from evolving further?

Evolution is when genetic changes or adaptations occur when genes mutate and combine in different ways during reproduction. This is normally to help the species survive or reproduce more effectively. When these changes occur, they become more common across a population if they pose an advantage to survival. So if the purpose of evolution is to survive and reproduce, do we need to evolve any more? Are we above natural selection?

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Galapagos Islands

Perhaps the most amazing thing about the animals of the Galapagos, is not how they look, but that they seem to know no fear of humans. Most of the Galapagos Islands have no permanent human settlements. Still, people have stopped to visit throughout history. But we remain enough of a rarity here that instead of running away, most animals move in for a closer look.

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Garage Doors

Most garage doors fall into 2 categories roll-up, or sectional doors and swing up or one - piece doors. Both get their lifting power from coiled metal counterbalance springs and require only minimal human or motorized effort for their operation.

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Gardening

For garden lovers, few pleasures equal roaming the aisles of a nursery. Here's how to make the best use of your time and get the most for your money. As you walk through the nursery, you'll discover that plants are available in three forms: balled-and-burlapped (typically bigger trees and shrubs with burlap wrapped around the root balls), bare-root (usually hedge plants and roses), and in containers (annuals, perennials, and smaller shrubs and trees). Plants are also grown differently: Some are kept in fields, some in containers, and some start out in fields and are then transplanted to containers to be sold.

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General George Armstrong Custer

On July 3rd, 1863, outside the small town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the fate of the Union Army, and the course of the Civil War, hung in the balance. On the third day of a climactic battle, confederate cavalry under Jeb Stuart -- the legendary gray horsemen known as "the Invincibles," -- threatened to overrun the Union's vulnerable right flank. As the overwhelmed Union forces began to fall back, only the veteran First Michigan Cavalry remained to counter-attack. At that moment, a figure came riding to the front of the Michigan lines, dressed in black velvet, his saber held high, yellow hair streaming in the wind -- it was the 23-year-old Brigadier General -- George Armstrong Custer.

So sudden and violent was the collision," wrote one veteran, "that many of the horses were turned end over end and crushed their riders beneath them. The clashing of sabers, the firing of pistols, the demands for surrender, and cries of combatants, filled the air." When it was over, the Union lines had held, and Custer's wild charge had helped win the most decisive battle of the Civil War.

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General George Armstrong Custer

On July 3rd, 1863, outside the small town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the fate of the Union Army, and the course of the Civil War, hung in the balance. On the third day of a climactic battle, confederate cavalry under Jeb Stuart -- the legendary gray horsemen known as "the Invincibles," -- threatened to overrun the Union's vulnerable right flank. As the overwhelmed Union forces began to fall back, only the veteran First Michigan Cavalry remained to counter-attack. At that moment, a figure came riding to the front of the Michigan lines, dressed in black velvet, his saber held high, yellow hair streaming in the wind -- it was the 23-year-old Brigadier General -- George Armstrong Custer.

So sudden and violent was the collision," wrote one veteran, "that many of the horses were turned end over end and crushed their riders beneath them. The clashing of sabers, the firing of pistols, the demands for surrender, and cries of combatants, filled the air." When it was over, the Union lines had held, and Custer's wild charge had helped win the most decisive battle of the Civil War.

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Ghiberti's Bronze Doors

In 1400, the government of Florence decided to commission a work of votive offering to give thanks to God for ending the plague. The commission was for two pairs of bronze doors, to be installed in the Baptistery in front of the cathedral. The competition for this project was intense, and the most prominent and talented artists of the day submitted entries. The commission was awarded to a young man of 23 named Ghiberti.

His workshop was to have an extraordinary impact on the
artistic development of the Renaissance. Ghiberti worked on this project for 50 years, finishing and installing the second pair in 1452 at a magnificent ceremony attended by the entire city. One hundred years later, Michelangelo himself declared these doors "fit to be the gates of Paradise".

As we look at the beautiful doors, many thoughts crowd upon us. The terrible sufferings of Florence during the plague, which caused their construction; the celebrated competition with its intense and passionate rivalry; the whole lifetime of work spent in their production; the school of art which Ghiberti's studio became for the entire Renaissance; and the eager band of young assistants, many of whom made names for themselves that are famous throughout the world. The final triumph when they were at last completed; the solemn function when they were erected in their place; the grey-haired Ghiberti, bent with age, who had begun them in his youth; the pride of all who had had a part however humble in their production; and the excitement and rapture of the whole city.

Lastly, the many things of of which these doors were the origin and matrix, from the sculpture of Donatello to the painting of Masaccio, and everything that grew from these; so as we look at Ghiberti's doors, we see mirrored in them the triumphs of Raphael and Michelangelo.

Thoughts such as these force themselves upon the mind as we stand in the crowded modern thoroughfare, with the cars and tourists and the life of Florence all around us, and look at Ghiberti's doors.

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Giant Squids

If you’ve never seen a live giant squid, don’t despair. Neither has anybody else. But this huge, ugly cephalopod--60 feet long, with eight grasping arms and two longer tentacles, a sharp beak and a pair of staring eyes--has been found dead a number of times, with bodies washed up at beaches around the world. The beast (known in Norwegian legend as the kraken) also appears in the pages of such novels as Moby Dick and 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, and has given sustenance to any number of sea-monster tales.

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Gobi Desert

The Gobi desert of Central Asia is one of the earth’s most desolate places. It’s million square kilometers of sand dunes, sculpted badlands, and saw toothed mountains are alternately scorched by summer’s high latitude sun and frozen by winter’s Siberian winds. It’s not a place to explore unprepared. Crossing vast uninhabitable areas, between a sprinkling of oasis, requires planning akin to the siege tactics for scaling a Himalayan peak or traversing the Antarctic Continent. There are few maps and satellite navigation is of limited help to a traveler trying to choose among the deeply rutted, wildly crisscrossing roads that wander as unpredictably as the nomadic settlements they connect. Even a modern day expedition runs the risk of shortages of water, fuel, and food. Getting lost is not merely frustrating but a matter of serious danger.

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Goji Juice. The Himalayan Health Secret

If you have not yet heard of goji, you are not alone. While it has occupied an important place in traditional Asian medicine for countless generations, the use of its nutritional benefits have remained a mystery to most of the world.

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Gorillas

Across the African continent, another population of Gorillas evolved. Their habitat straddles the volcanic ranges that join Zooganda and the democratic republic of Congo and spreads into the lower mountain forest. It gets chilly in the mountains; their shorter limbs and shaggy hair help protect them from the cold. They travel mostly on the ground; their feet are more like our own. It was these gorillas, that an American sculptor and naturalist named Carl Ackley, came to collect in 1904. Specimens to be stuffed and mounted for the American Museum of Natural History.

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Grand Teton National Park

The youngest of the Rocky Mountains, the Teton Range is a spectacular sight. Enhanced by glaciers, deep canyons, snowfields, and lakes, the range shoots up suddenly, with no foothills around it. The three Tetons - South, Middle, and Grand - lure casual tourists and serious climbers alike, year round.

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Great Fire of London - The Untold Story

In the hot summer of 1666, the City of London was consumed by a great fire. 13,000 houses were destroyed, 89 churches were incinerated, 80% of the building stock was erased. No other city had burned like this since Roman times. The story passed down to us says the fire was an accident, started in a bakery in Pudding Lane. That Mr Farynor, the Royal baker, had left some embers still burning near his ovens. That London’s wooden buildings were a tinder box fanned by unseasonably hot gales. Poor Mr Farynor, it was all a terrible accident. But that wasn’t how it appeared to Londoners at the time.

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Great Ship Wrecks

In 1916, the hospital ship Britannic was rocked by sudden, massive explosion and sunk in less than an hour. Was it bad luck or something more sinister? It would be 60 years before the world’s most intrepid undersea explorers began to unravel the mystery. While Titanic is the most infamous of all ship disasters the fate of her sister ships, Olympic and Britannic were similarly tragic. From the beginning, the histories of these three ill-fated liners were joined by a series of mysterious coincidences.

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Great White Sharks

The great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, also known as the great white, is a large lamniform shark found in the coastal surface waters in all major oceans.It is known for its size, with the largest known individuals known to have approached or exceeded 20 ft in length, and 5000 lb in weight.This shark reaches maturity at around 15 years of age and can have a life span of over 30 years.
The great white shark is arguably the world's largest known extant macropredatory fish and is one of the primary predators of marine mammals.It is also known to prey upon a variety of other marine animals including fish and seabirds. It is the only known surviving species of its genus, and it ranked first in a list of recorded attacks on humans.
The blockbuster film JAWS by Steven Spielberg depicted the great white shark as a "ferocious man eater". In reality humans are not the preferred prey of the great white shark.

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Grenada

Twelve degrees north latitude is a great address in the Caribbean. Far south of the path of hurricanes and most cruise ships, Grenada quietly remains a place where abundance is still in abundance. The 12-by-21 mile island so overflows with natural endowments--healthy coral reefs, solitary beaches, and mountainous rainforests--that you don’t care if the way to them is over roads under construction. If you’ve ever wondered what the splendors of some more smoothly paved islands must have been like 50 years ago, Grenada fills in the blanks.

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Guerilla Marketing

What are the characteristics of the guerilla marketing as opposed to traditional marketing? Guerrilla marketing differs in twelve ways:

1. Traditional marketing uses as big a budget as possible; guerrilla marketing substitutes time, energy and imagination for money.

2. Traditional marketing is geared to big businesses with a big dream but, not a big bankroll.

3. Traditional marketing marketing measures effectiveness with sales; guerrilla marketing, and profits.

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Gun Control

As America enters the next decade, it does so with an appalling legacy of gun violence. The 1980s were tragic years that saw nearly a quarter of a million Americans die from handguns -- four times as many as were killed in the Vietnam War. We began the decade witnessing yet another president, Ronald Reagan, become the victim of a would-be assassin’s bullet. That day, Press Secretary James Brady also became a statistic in America’s handgun war. Gun violence is an epidemic in this country. In too many cities, the news each night reports another death by handgun. As dealers push out in search of new addicts...

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Halloween

Halloween is a festival of Scottish-Irish origin, held on All Hallow’s Eve, the night of October 31. Elements of the customs connected with Halloween can be traced to a Druid ceremony in pre-Christian times. The Celts had festivals for two major gods -- a sun god and a god of the dead, called Sanhaim, whose festival was held on November 1, the beginning of the Celtic New Year. The festival of the dead was gradually incorporated into Christian ritual. In the 9th century, a feast in honor of all the saints, “All Hallows”, was fixed on November 1, and in the 11th century, November 2 was specified as All Soul’s Day to honor the souls of the dead.

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Hispaniola

Located between Cuba and Puerto Rico, the island of Hispaniola is divided between the nations of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. At 18,792 square miles, the Dominican Republic is nearly twice as large as its immediate neighbor, and it has the distinction of encompassing both the highest and lowest elevations in the Caribbean. Its highest point, Pico Duarte, rises 10, 417 feet above the sea, while a little more than one hundred miles to the south, Isla Cabritos, an island in Lago Enriquillo, lies 131 feet below sea level.

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Historical Documentary

(informative, engaging read):
Death and destruction from the Civil War found the country anxious to move forward. As the nation struggled to recover, the age of the great industrialists in steel, railroads, and other enterprises dawned. But in the American South, life was a daily struggle. Federal troops, Reconstruction, and carpetbaggers controlled the former Confederate states. A greatly depressed economy made the former aristocracy poor and the land poor even poorer.

(more lively read):
"In the 1920s, women received the right to vote and Prohibition became the law of the land. The stock market boomed, Bootleggers prospered and the Jazz age ushered in a sense of free spirit. The South surpassed the North in textile manufacturing and the rapidly expanding industry not only changed the way Southerners worked, but the way they lived. Instead of farming and being outside at the call of the seasons, they worked to the rhythm of the weave room. Click clack. Click clack."

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History Channel - Sixteen Street Baptist Church Bombing

September 15, 1963, the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Alabama - as worshipers fill the sanctuary, nothing can prepare the congregation for the horror to come. 12 sticks of dynamite are set to detonate beneath a nearby stairwell. A phone rings in the church office; "Three minutes." The bombers had issued their warning; the countdown has just begun to one of the most shocking crimes in the civil rights era. The bomb goes off and pandemonium breaks out in the streets as onlookers rush to help. Killed in the blast are Denise McNare, Cynthia Wesley, Kell Robinson and Addie Mae Collins. Their murders are the latest violence to rock Birmingham, one of the most segregated cities in the nation. Birmingham is a place where the Klan has detonated so many bombs in black neighborhoods; the city's nickname is bombing-ham. The police chief Bull Connor has his troops set attack dogs on black demonstrators. Where firemen pummel young protestors with fire hoses; And now on top of all that, a place where children are murdered in church.

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History of LSD

In 1938, a Swiss chemist named Albert Hofmann synthesized LSD for the first time while studying ergots, a type of fungus. Though the pharmaceutical company that he worked for, Sandoz, didn't have any interest in the compound, Hofmann found himself inexplicably drawn to it. Five years later, in the spring of 1943, he synthesized it again, noticing that it seemed to have unusual properties: After accidentally absorbing small amounts through his fingertips one day in the lab, Hofmann had to leave work early, under the effects of what he called "a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition." A few days later, he experimented with taking what he thought was a small dose of LSD, about 250 micrograms (a common dose now is more on the order of 100 micrograms), and proceeded to trip out of his mind, an experience he describes in his book LSD: My Problem Child.

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How the Universe Works

When massive stars die... they seed the Universe with stardust. Full of elements like hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, silicon and iron.
The raw materials to build new stars, solar systems, planets and of course ...us.
Everything we see around us once blasted out from the core of a star.
You may stardust is. Well ..you're stardust ...because every atom in your body was produced in the fiery core of a star.The atoms in your left hand may come from a different star than the atoms in your right hand ... but you are literally a star child.

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Hukkes Prisoners

Reverse speech. In the latter days of Earth, before it exploded into the shards and stones of the new asteroid belt that surrounds the sun in place of the old orbiting planet. The science of reverse speech had been a vanguard of the increasingly peaceful society that had inhabited most countries.

For those that may not know, science had discovered that all people, everywhere, spoke two distinct languages simultaneously. One language, the conscious spoken word, is understood with the left brain and the conscious mind; the other, spoken in metaphors and emanating from the right brain, and in reverse, happens simultaneously and is understood subliminally. The information dispensed from the right brain appears in the conscious mind as intuition.

One of the benefits of this discovery was the increasing inability for people to lie to each other. There was no way to squelch the intrepidly truthful right brain and as people learned to pick up the intuitive information as second nature, duplicity became impossibility.

Conversely, Mother Nature became more and more erratic. As mankind became more ordered and peaceful, the planet frayed at the edges. The whole earth became hotter and hotter each summer. Tornadoes became unseasonable and flooding forced entire countries to take up residence with their inland neighbors. The same science that had tamed the devil within mankind could find no answer to the dissolution of the planet.

The only answer was to build environmental cones over major cities and huge anti-gravitational complexes beneath the city streets. Once finished, these flying cities lifted off from the bosom of their mother as the inner core of the earth exploded.

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Influenza 1918

It was the worst epidemic this country has ever known. It killed more Americans than all the wars this century — combined. Before it was over, it almost broke America apart. In 1918, the United States was a vigorous young nation, leading the world into the modern age. All our fears and anxieties were directed toward Europe, where the war raged. At home, we were safe. The soldier was the darling of America. Patriotism ran unrestrained in a country newly entered in the Great War.

Some say it began in the spring of 1918, when soldiers at Fort Riley, Kansas, burned tons of manure. A gale kicked up. A choking dust storm swept out over the land — a stinging, stinking yellow haze. The sun went dead black in Kansas. Two days later — on March 11th, 1918 — an Army private reported to the camp hospital before breakfast. He had a fever, sore throat, headache… nothing serious. One minute later, another soldier showed up. By noon, the hospital had over a hundred cases; in a week, 500. That spring, 48 soldiers — all in the prime of life — died at Fort Riley. The cause of death was listed as pneumonia. The sickness then seemed to disappear, leaving as quickly as it had come.

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Ireland

Ireland is a land of wild seacoasts and misty rolling hills -- so green that it is sometimes called “The Emerald Isle.” Whitewashed cottages with thatched roofs dot the countryside. The Irish people are known for their wit, imagination, spirit, and hospitality. Ireland lies west of Great Britain, between the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The island is divided into two parts. Most of the island is the independent Republic of Ireland, often known as Eire. The northeastern region, Ulster, is part of the United Kingdom. The capital of the Republic is the ancient city of Dublin. A gentle region of hills, loughs, and rivers stretches across central Ireland to the west coast.

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Ireland: A History By Robert Kee

Since the 1960s, the world’s headlines have repeatedly focused on the problems of Northern Ireland. But these latest confrontations are only the most recent response to Britain’s 800-year presence in Ireland. In this unusually graphic and detailed short history of Ireland, we set out to disentangle fact from myth, events from emotions. Combining documentary evidence with a wealth of pictorial material, we will trace the emergence of the five principal groups involved in Irish history.

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Irish Sweepstakes

As unlikely as it seems, many people will enter and win money in the Irish Sweepstakes. This lottery is illegal in the United States, yet as much as 30 million dollars are spent on it annually by citizens of the United States. While postal inspectors, the U.S. Treasury, the FBI, as well as state and local police are all out to stop the, it seems that most of their efforts have failed.

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Irish-americans

They were the first large wave of immigrants to land in nineteenth-century America, arriving poor and desperate, uprooted strangers in a strange world. They fought to belong, to survive, and to get ahead, as would all newcomers to America. They endured the hardships and insults that beset all immigrants. They were mostly country folk and they became mostly city people. They were at the bottom of the social ladder and they struggled upwards. They are the Irish – more than four and a quarter million of them who came to the United States between 1820 and 1920.

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Israel

Religion, politics, passion, history, social injustice, and a standing army are not the ideal ingredients for a 'get away from it all' holiday. But these are the things that draw thousands of visitors to Israel every year. This is 'where it happened', a land that grips at the imagination of every Christian, Jew and Muslim in the world, and inflames a fair few of them to hatred and violence. It's the intangibles of Israel - standing in the footsteps of gods, breathing the air of the Messiah - that bring people here.

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JFK

On November 22nd, 1963 President John F. Kennedy arrives in Dallas to an ecstatic welcome. In his three years as president, Kennedy has become a global superstar. Credited with facing down the Cold War Soviet enemy in Cuba and saving the world from nuclear war. With his glamorous style icon wife Jackie, Kennedy has also become the darling of the world’s media, the first tv president. But not everyone welcomes the president that morning in Dallas. In Dallas today, the spot Kennedy was targeted 50 years ago continues to draw visitors from around the world a tragedy from long before cell phones and the internet has a powerful hold for successive generations. This film tells the story of that day in Dallas through the memories of people who played a part in those extraordinary events and whose lives were touched forever by what happened some have not spoken on camera before. The doctor who tried to save Kennedy, the secret service agent who agonized that he was too late, the man wrongly accused of JFK’s murder, the woman who discovered she had sheltered the President’s assassin. This is the minute by minute story of the death of a president told through rarely seen film and photographs to give a definitive eye witness account of the day Kennedy died.

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Joy Of Pigs

Welcome to the world of pigs. Forget what you’ve heard about them and take a fresh look at these animals. You’ll discover that they are wonderful creatures, remarkable products of evolution, though, in some cases, by human design. Their unusual looks and their untidy eating habits have given them a bad reputation. Actually, they are fit, smart, and extremely adaptable.

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Keeping the Bees

What would the world look like without Bees?
Bees are a foundation to our whole system. 1 out of every 3 or 4 bites of food you eat is thanks to these amazing creatures.
But Honey bees are disappearing at an alarming rate.

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Keiko (cake-co)

After 11 years in the too-warm, shallow 20-foot depths of his tiny 90-by-43-foot tank, Keiko suffered from skin lesions caused by a papillomavirus, as well as from digestive problems and a compromised immune system. Since being ripped from his family pod, Keiko has been transported from Iceland to Canada to Mexico, and finally to the United States. He has learned tricks, starred in the movie “Free Willy”, captivated a formidable number of children, suffered what some thought might be terminal health complications, and become the symbol for the plight of captive marine animals. On September 9, 1998, the most famous orca in the world went home.

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Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park Film

DIRECTION for Actors: Please read these lines as if you are the actual soldiers fighting in this Civil War battle that took place in Georga in June 1864. We are hearing these quotes being read - while seeing battle scenes that have already been historically re-created and filmed. BE REAL, AUTHENTIC AND GENUINE IN YOUR DELIVERY. Please end your read with the character's name and rank as it's written in bold below the read. Knowing the rank may inform your read: the hire the rank, the more education generally.

NORTHERN READS (no southern accents)

Sergent Alexander Downing (in his 30s)

"May God hasten the day when this cruel war will be brought to a close, so that our nation may enjoy peace once more. But we must remember that there may be many men yet who will fall for their country. May God be with us and help us as we stand in need." Sergent Alexander Downing, 11th Iowa.

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Keynesian Economics

It’s probable that Keynes was merely suggesting a temporary fix for an economy by instructing the investment in employment by the government.

His vision was not necessarily meant to be a permanent state of existence. He could not have foreseen a permanent existence of government borrowing and deficit spending which was being suggested for all nations.

The world could have seen the workings of the New Deal as a temporary and expensive fix for poverty and unemployment, as they would have then noticed, if it had not been for the up and coming disaster that we all now know as World War II. Government spending rose like a red tide to $103 billion annually. The day for paying the bills was put on the back burner until after the war. Unfortunately for us, that day never came, and each Presidential administration since FDR, except for a brief time under President Bill Clinton, has continued the Keynesian philosophy into our own time.

Keyne's philosophy can be summed up as such: The Government has all the answers. Government guarantees stabilized banks. Protection satisfies labor unions. Regulation stabilizes transportation, travel, the media, housing, mortgages, pension funds, and retirement plans. Government is the final resource, it can create something out of nothing.

Keynesian economics writes a check for the next generation that it cannot cash. The ideas are effective in the short term, but mortgage the future.

“In the long term...”, said Keynes, “we are all dead.”

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Kilimanjaro

Kilimanjaro

With all the wonder of a lost world through the billowing mist of an ancient rain forest, appears mount Kilimanjaro. Rising like a dark island through a sea of clouds, shaped by volcanic fire and glacial ice, its snow-summit shimmering in the harsh equatorial light.
---
This is Eddie Frank, born and raised in Africa, he is the founder of Tusker Trail.
In 1977, while leading his maiden 4-month expedition across Africa,
Eddie Frank climbed Mount Kilimanjaro for the very first time.
Since then, he has built Tusker Trail into the most trusted and experienced name on Kilimanjaro. Building Tusker’s rock solid reputation bore a challenge similar to what climbers face on Kilimanjaro, at 19340 feet, the highest solitary peak in the world.
---
With each new step, there looms a new obstacle.
The ever thinning air at high altitude, the ever changing terrain.
But as you summit - as you reach the top - gazing down at the wilderness from the crown of Africa, you behold the most breathtaking view of your life.
And having reached your goal, all you can hope for is to preserve it, to stay there.

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Killer Whales

Next, for no apparent reason, the killer whales abruptly dive and leave the scene. The sperm whales, however, continue to hold their formation. Soon, four female killer whales come charging in, this time from about a quarter mile out. At one hundred yards, they lunge high out of the water, shoulder to shoulder, in the synchrony of practiced pack hunters. Circling rapidly around the rosette, they stay just beyond the reach of those dangerous tails. One cuts in and locks her jaws onto the side of a sperm whale. Flashes of white show below the surface as she spins around, tail pumping, trying to wrest a mouthful of flesh. As fresh blood again colors the surface, two more killer whales join the attack. After a brief flurry, the attackers again retreat and the sperm whales shore up their formation. The air is filled with the smell of flesh and oil, and they huddle in a gathering cloud of their own blood, which hints at the unseen damage below.

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Korea

The Korean War, forever known as the ‘Forgotten War’ by many, lasted a total of 1127 days, from June 25th 1950 through July 27th 1953. A total of 38 months. A little over three years in length, but encompassing four years on a calendar. With a beginning that was unlike any other beginning of a ‘war’ up until then, the term ‘Police Action’ became its moniker for many years, with some in the United States and other countries looking to call it anything other than what it really was.

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Lambert Castle Museum

Lambert Castle was built in 1893 as the home of Catholina Lambert, the self-made owner of a prominent silk mill in the city of Paterson, New Jersey. Constructed in the Medieval Revival architectural style, Mr. Lambert's dream was to build a home reminiscent of the castles in Great Britain that he remembered from his boyhood years.

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Lebanon

Lebanon is an Arab republic on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, and the only Middle Eastern country with a large Christian community. It is bounded on the north and east by Syria and on the south by Israel. Lebanon is a narrow strip of land dominated by the Lebanon Mountains, for which it is named. The country is about 130 miles long and 20 to 60 miles wide, and has an area of 4,015 square miles. Lebanon is divided into five provinces: Beirut and the immediate environs of the capital city; Mount Lebanon, North Lebanon, and South Lebanon, which lie along the Mediterranean and include the Lebanon Mountains; and the Biqa.

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Legends Of Comedy Documentary

The motion picture, a child of our 19th century scientific curiosity that grew up under our 20th century noses, this child first caught our eye with scenes of daily life like this Easter parade at the turn of the 20th century. But movie makers soon realized there were subjects that would attract a larger audience and increase the take. For only five cents you could visit a nickelodeon and see the true wonders of turn of the century America.

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Library Of Congress – A Brief History

The Library of Congress was established by an act of Congress in 1800 when President John Adams signed a bill providing for the transfer of the of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. It was housed in the new Capitol until August 1814, when invading British troops set fire to the Capitol Building, burning and pillaging the contents of the small library. Within a month, retired President Thomas Jefferson offered his personal library as a replacement. Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating books and his library was considered to be one of the finest in the United States.

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Life On Earth

Just as Einstein changed the way we understand time and space, and Freud changed the way we understand the workings of the human psyche, Charles Darwin changed forever the way we look at natural forms. The shapes of bodies, of finches’ beaks and fishes’ fins, were not fixed at some moment of creation; rather, forms evolved and were altered by circumstance. “Life On Earth” is a great collection of individual stories, natural histories that, while sounding Kiplingesque--how the snail got its shell, how the bacterium got its DNA--give us a deeper appreciation of the world and our place in it. This episode of Natural History shows how scientists continue to interpret the narratives embodied in natural forms.

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Life On Earth

Just as Einstein changed the way we understand time and space, and Freud changed the way we understand the workings of the human psyche, Charles Darwin changed forever the way we look at natural forms. The shapes of bodies, of finches’ beaks and fishes’ fins, were not fixed at some moment of creation; rather, forms evolved and were altered by circumstance. “Life On Earth” is a great collection of individual stories, natural histories that, while sounding Kiplingesque--how the snail got its shell, how the bacterium got its DNA--give us a deeper appreciation of the world and our place in it. This episode of Natural History shows how scientists continue to interpret the narratives embodied in natural forms.

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Lightning

Lightning is extremely hot—a flash can heat the air around it to temperatures five times hotter than the sun’s surface. This heat causes surrounding air to rapidly expand and vibrate, which creates the pealing thunder we hear a short time after seeing a lightning flash.

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Lion Takes Down Wildebeest

For the wildebeest, the grass is life, but it’s also cover for the enemy. This lion, hidden in the grass, senses an opportunity. A mother and calf have strayed from the heard. When she goes, a lion’s acceleration can cover 50 feet in less than two seconds. But in this moment, something surprising occurs. The lioness turns away from the calf, the easier kill, and makes an attempt for the larger adult. Why she does has everything to do with where these rivals were just seconds before. Having penetrated so far inside the wildebeest’s escape zone, perhaps the lioness feels she now has a chance at running down the bigger meal. And unlike the wildebeest’s long and lean lower limbs, the lion’s are short and heavily muscled. It’s like a matchup between a marathon runner built for endurance and a sprinter with a weightlifter’s strength. The lion’s charge zeroes in on the wildebeest’s vulnerable flanks. Then there’s the leap. Cats can rotate their wrists, wrap their paws around prey, and unleash jackknife-like claws to hold on. Though the wildebeest outweighs the lioness, it isn’t designed for side to side stability. A lion’s powerful shoulders and momentum can knock it over. Once it’s down, the lion’s toolbox of teeth go to work. To seize the throat or to clamp over a muscle, long canines bite like daggers, killing by suffocation. Later on, upper and lower carnassial teeth work like scissors to slice meat. Even the surface of the tongue has sharp, pointed bumps for rasping flesh from the kill. In the moment, one wildebeest, one lion. But in the bigger picture, it’s the grassland’s quintessential balancing act. Small bands of hunters picking their opportunities within the migrating herds. Any moment of impact turns on split-second timing, luck, and millions of years of physiological adaptation.

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Lions - Documentary Script

The lions must hunt and find food soon or they will die. The pride follows the herd hoping to find an opening. The cubs are too young to keep up and very soon will perish from hunger. Life is tough here on the plains and survival is far from guaranteed. A simple injury can often spell the end for both predator and prey.

The dry season and heat are too much for some. Both elephants and lions press on and soon the rains will come and with it, the life giving water and greenery that can promise life for all.

The lions have brought down a young elephant that has strayed from the herd. This much needed break will feed the pride for a week and has probably made the difference between life and death.

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Locked Away & Forgotten: Women Prisoners Need More Support

The female prison population has more than doubled in the past decade, outpacing the rise in the number of incarcerated men. If this rate holds steady, a woman born in 2001 will be six times more likely to spend time in prison than a woman in jail now will get arrested after they're out. Without crucial support programs, women return to prison again and again. Thanks to bad luck, bad judgement, or a toxic combination of the two, nearly 100,000 American Women will strain to catch a glimpse of the fireworks from behind bars.

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Lockheed Space Station

For more than three decades, mankind has explored the mysteries of the universe from a vantage point in space. Now we’re turning space into a practical place to work. By the end of the year, NASA’s space station is scheduled to give science a permanent platform in orbit. A place where researchers can examine our world from a unique perspective, and experiment under conditions of extreme temperature and weightlessness. In zero gravity, compounds can react in ways not possible here on Earth. Scientists can create better medicines, more durable plastics, and stronger alloys made of metals that resist mixing under gravity’s pull. The Space Station will also...

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Lost Liners

For almost a century, the great ships were forgotten. Then, in 1985, an underwater explorer named Robert Ballard, found the most luxury liner of them all. And we began to remember them again. This is the story of the rise and fall of the great ocean liners, and one man's journey to encounter them again.

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Lottery-- News Story

Millions of people tuned in last night to see if they had picked the lucky numbers. At stake: a jackpot worth 363 million dollars. An estimated 30-40 million Americans bought tickets for the so-called big game -- a lottery sponsored and managed by seven states -- Georgia, Virginia, Illinois, Michigan, Maryland, New Jersey and Massachusetts. The prize amount kept growing when earlier drawings failed to produce winning tickets -- but last night there were two.

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M.A.C. Matte Lipstick

In the '80s there was a strong underground influence in makeup that came from nightclubs in cities like London, N.Y. and Toronto. M•A•C was the first to recognize the trend and developed a matte lipstick that would fulfill the need. Word spread quickly about the wearability and the fantastic range of colors M•A•C offered. The popularity of matte lipstick skyrocketed when Madonna wore Russian Red Lipstick - she loved the intense colour. The rest is history.

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Mario Lemieux

*Excerpted (and slightly edited for the purposes of this recording) from a blog post by Grantland's Sean McIndoe*

The year he became draft eligible, Mario Lemieux scored 282 points in a 70-game season.

[The struggling Penguins were so desperate to draft him,] that by March 1984 they were practically shooting the puck into their own net. It ended up being a smart move, as Lemieux dominated immediately.

[However,] Lemieux also battled health issues, including a bad back and hip and a bout with cancer, that wiped out chunks of several seasons and forced his first retirement when he was just 31 years old. Despite retiring 22 years after he was drafted, he never even reached the 1,000-game mark.

By the time he retired for good in 2006, Lemieux owned Pittsburgh — literally. He rescued the franchise from bankruptcy in 1999 and kept the team from relocating, paving the way for the team’s Sidney Crosby–led renaissance.

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Mary Magdalene

Mary Magdalene story was intimately linked with Jesus

She plays a starring role in one of the most powerful and important scenes in
the Gospels

When Jesus was crucified by the Romans Mary Magdalene was there

at the foot of the Cross supporting him in his final terrifying moments and mourning his death.

Mary is not only present at the crucifixion she also discovers the empty
Tomb and she is a witness to the resurrection.

But the Mary Magdalene that lives in our memories and especially in art is quite different.

She's often semi-naked or an isolated hermit repenting for her sins in the wilderness.

Her primary link with Jesus is as the woman washing
and anointing his feet but we know her best as a prostitute
.
Now new evidence suggests
that Mary Magdalene was a very different woman to the one we think we know.
So who was the real Mary Magdalene?

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Maui

From watching an intimate sunrise, wrapped together in a blanket at the top of Haleakala crater, to seeing the sunset as you cruise along the golden Kihei coastline, Maui is a place where romance isn't hard to find.

One of the top honeymoon destinations in the word, Maui's alluring beaches and immaculate resorts also provide an idyllic setting for weddings and receptions, or simply for escaping the world and spending time with the one you love.

Whether it's hiking to one of East Maui's spectacular waterfalls, enjoying a couples massage in a resort in Wailea, or strolling hand-in-hand along Maui's beaches, one visit to this lovely island and you'll see why falling in love comes so naturally here, perhaps more than anywhere else in the world.

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Mayan Apocalypse

The Maya, an ancient South American culture, predicted that time would end in a violent apocalypse on December 21, 2012. They created an elaborate astronomical calendar called "The Long Count," which stops abruptly in 2012. This date, which is also the winter equinox, coincides with an incredibly rare galactic alignment that happens once every 26,000 years. What did the Mayans think would happen when their calendar ended? And were they joined by other cultures--from different parts of the world and in different centuries--all pointing to 2012 as a calamitous end time? The Hopi Indians and Eastern Hindus have similar calendars, which are remarkably synchronous. One counter-culture mystic even uses an Ancient Chinese philosophy to unlock the key to a 2012 prophecy. Nostradamus himself suggests the world is headed toward a coming cataclysm. What can we do to heed the warning of the Mayan apocalypse?

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Medieval Castles

Castles were the biggest part of life in the medieval period. Kings, Lords, and Knights lived in these structures. They were used for multipurpose. Family living, government and royalty lived within the castle walls. During the Medieval period, they had vicious, bloody wars. During an invasion from neighboring villages the only first line of defense would be their castle.

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Megalodon

Sharks, the most dangerous and feared predators in the ocean.But even the great white pales in comparison to the biggest shark that ever lived. Megalodon, literally translated means big tooth. A prehistoric shark with three meter jaws lined with deadly rows of serrated teeth. Megalodon used these jaws to inflict massive damage on even the biggest whales in the ocean.

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Metal

It is almost impossible to imagine life today without metals. All our forms of transport are made of metals: cars, trains, and ships are made of steel, which is made from iron. Aircraft and spacecraft use aluminum and titanium metals. Parts of houses such as nails, screws, guttering, window frames, roofing materials, and door handles are made from metals that include iron, steel, aluminum, zinc, and chromium. The precious metals gold and silver are used in jewelry. Metals have a number of common properties that enable them to be so widely used. These properties are: they conduct electricity well, for example, copper and aluminum are used to make electrical wire and power transmission lines; they conduct heat well; they are malleable.

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Mongoose attacks the Cobra.

The dusty plains of southern india for the venue for one of nature’s most astonishing hunts. It’s an unusual faceoff. In one corner, the cobra. Spectacle cobras can grow upto more than 7 feet in length. Their venom attacks the nerves which can kill a human in as little as 30 min. Cobras are normally shy, but when threatened they can become very aggressive, especially when a furry predator starts sniffing around. In the other corner, the mongoose. At first glance this curious mammal may not look like much competition for a cobra but the Indian Grey mongoose is quite the predator itself, and it’s lightning fast reflexes and thick hide have enabled it to add snakes, like the cobra, to its list of favorite foods. The snake tries to warn the mongoose away, making use of that famous hood and raspy hiss. But the mongoose is persistent and on the hunt. When the mongoose moves into attack the cobra strikes and misses, again and again. Each time the mongoose dances just out of reach. But when the mongoose attacks, he doesn’t miss. Snake will be on the menu tonight.

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Mother's Day History

Contrary to popular belief, Mother's Day was not conceived and fine-tuned in the boardroom of Hallmark. The earliest tributes to mothers date back to the annual spring festival the Greeks dedicated to Rhea, the mother of many deities, and to the offerings ancient Romans made to their Great Mother of Gods, Cybele. Christians celebrated this festival on the fourth Sunday in Lent in honor of Mary, mother of Christ. In England this holiday was expanded to include all mothers and was called Mothering Sunday.

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Motorcyling

Motorcycling has never been more popular. Today more than seven million Americans own a bike and our strong economy is driving up sales to record numbers. In fact new bike sales are up 66 per cent from 1992. And they're not cheap. Take this one...a Harley-Davidson Heritage Soft-tail Classic. It sells for about 18 thousand dollars. That without the leather jacket. Bikes and bikers are back in vogue and battling a tarnished image. For nearly fifty years American bikers meant gangs and the most powerful, most feared gang of all the Hell's Angels so-called outlaw gangs are still around. But who are today's bikers? And what is really behind our new fascination with the road rebel?

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Movie-Made America

Long before anyone thought movies could be art, a new generation of thinkers and artists had begun to explore the principles of motion pictures for analogies to their own innovations in philosophy, science, painting and literature. What interested these early-twentieth-century modernists was movement, and the relativity and multi-dimensionality of space and time. The invention of cameras and projectors to record and reproduce images of motion coincided with the development of modernism, and in some cases may have fostered it.

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Music

Music has been an important part of almost every culture on Earth. Folk heroes, seasonal and cultural events, and religious ideas are celebrated in music and song. Some societies use music in their traditional healing methods. Mostly, however, music has become an important way of passing on tradition and entertaining. Music is organized sound. The difference between noise and musical notes is that the sound waves producing the notes are regular and repetitive, while those making noise are random. We can call almost any group or series of notes that we like “music.” The development of technology applied to music has produced...

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Mystery On Everest

On June 6, 1924, George Leigh Mallory, at left, and Andrew Irvine set out with experimental oxygen bottles from Camp IV high on Mount Everest. Two days later, they vanished in a bank of clouds. Were they the first to stand atop Everest? The discovery of Mallory’s body answers some questions, but the riddle endures.

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Napa Valley

The Napa Valley stands arrogantly in the center stage of California, just as France dominates the wine-lands of Europe. It was the Napa which forged the modern California wine industry, and which acted as the magnet drawing money, ambition and genius from other walks of life; and it set standards against which not only the rest of California but also the rest of the world have to measure up. The Napa was the obvious starting point for any fledgling winemaker, because its climate had long been considered ideal for grape-growing—free from frost dangers, with average rainfall, rich soil, and a very long, reliable ripening period of hot but not sweltering days. These conditions make for regular crops of perfect grapes, which allow the winemakers to exercise all their skills and passions on molding the grapes into their own personal style of wine.

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Nasa

Among the thousands of pictures of planets and moons, perhaps the most memorable was recorded on February 14th, 1990, when Voyager I approached the edge the solar system…then turned back toward the sun.

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Nasa Space Science: A Violent History Of Time

From mother Earth, the night sky can look peaceful and unchanging, but the universe as seen in gamma-rays is a place of sudden and chaotic violence. Using gamma-ray telescopes, astronomers witness short but tremendously intense explosions called gamma-ray bursts, and there is nothing more powerful.
No one is sure what causes gamma-ray bursts. Favored possibilities include the collision of two neutron stars or a sort of super-supernova that occurs when extremely massive stars explode. One thing is certain: gamma-ray bursts happen in galaxies far, far away -- so far away that the distances are called "cosmological," beyond ordinary comprehension.
Think about this: When you look up at the night sky, you are looking at the ultimate history book – one that goes back to the very beginning of what we call time. And each star is a chapter in the book. You are not really seeing the stars as they are now. You are looking at stars as they used to be when their light left them long ago. And the deeper we peer into space, the farther back in time we are looking. In fact, light from the galaxies farthest away is billions of years old.

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National Geographic 125 Years

National Geographic commemorates 125 years with this new book and amazing 10-disc anthology showcasing the moments, the people, and the discoveries that changed the world. With show-stopping imagery and thrilling behind-the-scenes tales, National Geographic 125 Years captures the heart of The National Geographic Society’s fascinating history, from its earliest days as a scientific club to its growth into one of the world's largest organizations. Each section is presented thematically and in chronological order, from summiting Mount Everest to landing on the moon to discovering Titanic. National Geographic 125 Years taps key voices from the forefront of ocean and space exploration, climate science, archaeology, mountaineering and much, much more. Sidebars feature famous names including Jared Diamond, Sylvia Earle, Zahi Hawass, Buzz Aldrin, Bob Ballard, and Jane Goodall, contributing their thoughts about big questions of exploration, key frontiers in research, and enduring mysteries. No mere insider’s account, National Geographic 125 Years focuses on the impact The Society has made on the world and how it has reported and reflected a dramatically changing planet with glimpses at the process of telling the greatest stories on earth.

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National Geographic Video

For a century, National Geographic has participated in and chronicled many of the world’s greatest explorations – unlocking the secrets of the oceans, lifting men into the stratosphere, and mapping the very boundaries of the earth, sea and sky. Now you can relive some of the most significant expeditions in history.

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National Parks

They are more than a collection of some of the most spectacular places on earth. More than majestic waterfalls and grand canyons. More than nature’s laboratories, where the forces that created our world can still be observed. More than unspoiled sanctuaries where magnificent species of animals can still carry on their existence as they always have. They are more than the repository of our collective memory. More than hollowed battle fields commemorating the nation’s greatest sacrifices. More than shrines honoring the nation’s first principals and highest aspirations. America’s national parks are more than all that. They embody an idea born in the United States nearly a century after its creation. As uniquely American as the Declaration of Independence and just as radical, that the most beautiful and sacred places in the land should be preserved not for royalty or the rich, but for everyone. The story of the national parks is a long and complicated one, full of competing demands between utterly American impulses; between preservation and exploitation, the sacred and the profitable, between the immediate desires of one generation and its obligation and promise to the next. It is a story that often focuses only on powerful presidents, famous conservationists and wealthy philanthropists, but everyday Americans, Americans from every background and every walk of life have been part of park history from the very beginning, and it is their story too.

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Nature

As January pounds the northern states with ice and snow, birds huddle under the protection of spruce boughs for the night, and rabbits sleep in grass-lined burrows under spreading yews. In the southeastern and southwestern states, January doesn’t have the same chilling power, and wildlife there can still forage through the year-round greenery.

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Nature 2

Green spaces are easily taken for granted, yet their great expanses unobtrusively support human existence. Among many other things, they furnish essential raw materials, renew soils, and prevent erosion, shelter animals that pollinate crops and control agricultural pests, purify our air and water, and help regulate climate. Because many of these ecosystem services, as scientists call them, have no traditional market value, their long-term protection is often ignored in favor of short-term profits.

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Nero

He was a perverse cross-dressing exhibitionist who had an incestuous relationship with his mother and married his step sister. He murdered members of his own family in fits of jealous rage. His cruelty, violence, and grotesque appetite for self-indulgence brought the Roman empire to the brink of financial and political ruin. And he viscously persecuted the christians. They would remember him as the ultimate embodiment of evil ... the anti-christ.

Nero was born on the 15th of December 37 AD in Antiem. His father Gneaus was from an old Roman aristocratic family. He was a cruel, hard drinking man who once ran over a child in his chariot for pleasure. Gneaus died when Nero was three years old. For the first twenty years of his life Nero would be dominated by his mother Agrippina. She was a sister of the emperor Caligula. She was ambitious, amoral, and a born survivor.

When the emperor Claudius was widowed, Agrippina embarked on a campaign of seduction. Within a short time she had married him and began to work relentlessly on the advancement of her son. When Nero was thirteen, she persuaded Claudius to adopt him, and when he was sixteen, she engineered his marriage to the emperor’s daughter Octavia, Nero’s step-sister. While Nero’s fortunes rose, the position of Claudius’s natural son Britanicus was becoming increasingly difficult.

Nero was four years older, which meant he took official precedence over his step-brother. As Nero took more and more duties Britanicus was sidelined. In 54 AD, Agrippina decided the time was right to make a bid to put Nero into power. According to the Roman historian Tacitus, only one obstacle remained.. the aging emperor Claudius.

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Nero - Short Version

He was a perverse cross-dressing exhibitionist who had an incestuous relationship with his mother and married his step sister. He murdered members of his own family in fits of jealous rage. His cruelty, violence, and grotesque appetite for self-indulgence brought the Roman empire to the brink of financial and political ruin. And he viscously persecuted the christians. They would remember him as the ultimate embodiment of evil ... the anti-christ.

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Network News

These are the men and women of Network News. Researching their stories, editing their reports, and reaching literally millions of homes at any one given time. One doesn’t become a Network News Anchor overnight. Today’s anchors were yesterday’s correspondents, scurrying for major stories whenever and wherever they could be found. But Network News is different. You’ve got to have a strong sense of style, of who you are, and your own special charismatic niche. These qualities usually make themselves known after years of experience and hard work. Be it a manner of speech, a type of body language, or style of dress, the Network News anchor has developed a trademark that is unmistakable in the industry.

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New London Ledge Light

At first sight, New London Ledge Light makes the onlooker wonder whether he or she is seeing a lighthouse or a Victorian mansion adrift on the ocean. The square, three-story brick structure has granite trim and a mansard roof on the then fashionable Second Empire style. The Lighthouse Board ordered construction in 1909, because the New London Harbor Light was judged inadequate to the needs of the harbor by many captains. Since New London Harbor Light guarded the western side of the mouth of the Thames River, the new light was built roughly halfway between the eastern and western sides. In 1987 the Ledge Light was automated. Still in use today, it has been leased by the U.S. Coast Guard.

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New York Harbor

This is the gateway of gateways. Walt Whitman called New York Harbor “the great place of the western continent, the heart, the brain, the main spring of the New World.” To enter the harbor is to enter America. In fact, it is the Golden Door to new life, the outward and visible sign of the covenant America has made with the world ... a monument guarded by a monument ... The Statue of Liberty.

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Newton’s Apple

When Isaac Newton was inspired by a falling apple at his Linconshire home, to ponder the concept of gravity in the 1660’s, he couldn’t have known how far from England that tree’s fruit would fall. Direct descendants of Newton’s original tree, which died in the early 1800’s currently flourish in locations as disparate as India and Gaithersburg, Maryland. York University in Toronto, Canada is the latest place where Newton’s apple has taken root. Retired in botany, Professor Michael Boyer helped plant three trees outside York’s physics building. “We hope they will inspire students and give them a modern-day connection to Newton.” He says.

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Niagara Falls

The story of Niagara Falls is not a straightforward tale, but one of rises and falls. It is a story of fear and affection, genius and lunacy, virtue and greed, romance and passion. Niagara is a tale of ongoing sound and fury that begins with miles of quiet. The waters of 4 Great Lakes flow gently along the Niagara River, marking the border between the U. S. and Canada. At the point where the massive water suddenly divides, two immense waterfalls plunge 20 stories down, diving into a rolling pool of water 200 feet deep.

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Nile

Standing proud and magnificent on the banks of the legendary Nile, is the only remaining Wonder of the Ancient World; the Great Pyramids and Sphinx at Giza. Travel to the edge of the desert plateau with your guide Omar Sharif, for an ancient unprecedented look into the secret passageways and chambers of these colossal and mysterious monuments. Mysteries of the Pyramids will answer some of the darkest questions that have haunted man for century upon century.

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Nobel Peace Prize / United Nations

For one hundred years, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has sought to strengthen organized cooperation between states. The end of the cold war has at last made it possible for the U.N. to perform more fully the part it was originally intended to play. Today the organization is at the forefront of efforts to achieve peace and security in the world, and of the international mobilization aimed at meeting the world's economic, social and environmental challenges.

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Northern New England

What resident of Northern New England has felt anything but longing while driving the byways of the region and gazing upon the connected farmhouses that punctuate it? The connected farmhouse, in its classic and practical beauty, testifies to the courage, fortitude, and imagination of our forebears in their unavailing struggle to turn the area into an agrarian paradise.

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NOVA's Extreme Cave Diving Intro

In the Bahamas islands, the world's best cave divers plunge into the abyss. They're exploring underwater caves, littered with mysteries and divers who didn't get out alive.

They face cave-ins, blackouts, panic. They do it for the rush, they do it to be first, and they do it to find ancient bones.

These caves are blue holes, liquid time capsules where the past stares right back at you.
Now, extreme divers try to solve the mystery of a lost world. But can they survive this alien place, under pressure, underwater, underground? Extreme Cave Diving, right now on this Nova/National Geographic special.

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NOVA's Extreme Cave Diving Part 1

In the Caribbean Sea, 60 miles off the coast of Florida, there is a paradise known as the Bahamas. This is a place full of attractions; they draw millions of tourists each year. But these visitors aren't here for sun or sand, though they may be in for a bit of a gamble. They've come to search for a lost world. They're extreme explorers, astronauts of an inner space called blue holes.

Blue holes get their name from the dark blue of their depths. And, while they don't look like much at the surface, what seems like a small pond can go thousands of feet down and spread out into a maze of underwater passages and tunnels. The mystery of their depths beckons the able and the foolhardy alike. On average, 20 divers die each year in caves like this.

But to these explorers, it's worth the risk, because blue holes aren't just spectacular, some preserve the past like a liquid time capsule. Diving them will take the explorers back thousands of years, where there are hints of an ancient, lost Bahamas.

What did this world look like then and who lived here? Now, an unprecedented expedition pairs expert cave divers with world-class scientists to find out.

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Nuclear Waste Disposal

More than thirty years of scientific study have confirmed how to safely and permanently dispose of high-level nuclear waste. The used nuclear fuel, in the form of ceramic pellets, would be sealed inside layers of steel; put in carefully engineered structures at least 1,000 feet underground, within dry rock formations that have a long history of geologic stability; and monitored closely. According to the National Academy of Sciences, “there is a strong worldwide consensus that the best, safest, long-term option for dealing with high-level waste is geologic isolation.”

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NYC Stuff Exchange (dept. Of Sanitation)

The NYC Department of Sanitation collects about 72,000 tons of trash and recycling from NYC residents and institutions every week.

The goal of NYC STUFF Exchange is to help reduce the city’s waste by encouraging New Yorkers to find a new home for gently used items that might otherwise be discarded as trash.

Now let’s take a closer look into the folks who oversee NYC STUFF and see just how much of a change they have made.

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Orangutans

Apes are extremely intelligent – even more so than monkeys. They appear to work through problems in the same way that humans do. The orangutan is one example of an ape that has performed several complex tasks in research centers – such as solving puzzles, using sign language, and learning to recognize symbols.

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Owensboro Museum of Fine Art

The Owensboro Museum of Fine Art is poised to share the extensive educational assets and resources demonstrated in this video with all the residents of Western Kentucky and asks for support of a proposal to include operational funds for this vision in the state’s next biennium budget.

We wish to thank all who may positively impact this vision and ask for a statewide endorsement of this investment in Kentucky’s future

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PBS Who Killed Lindbergh's Baby?

Eighty years ago, this narrow country lane led to the scene of one of the most perplexing crimes in American history, and this man wants to solve that crime once and for all. He’s John Douglas, legendary F.B.I. profiler, who pioneered the use of behavioral analysis for tracking down serial killers and other dangerous criminals.

Today, he has come to this isolated estate, in Hopewell, New Jersey, to try and unravel a mystery as cold as the grave: the daring kidnapping and tragic death of Charles Lindbergh, Jr., age 20 months when he was stolen in 1932.

Douglas has worked thousands of cases and helped in the prosecution of violent offenders all over the world, but this notorious crime still haunts him.

The crime would touch a fear lurking in the heart of every parent, that somehow, without warning or reason, their child would be taken from them, never to return.

(In the original transcript, in between each of these paragraphs spoken by the narrator, there are not only images, but also clips from interviews with various experts.)

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Pearl Harbor

December 7th, 1941. The pictures tell the story. Most of the Pacific Fleet is in ruins in the waters of Pearl Harbor. America’s military might has been dealt a severe blow. How could this surprise Japanese attack have happened? We found part of the answer in a story we worked on back in 1961. This was our portrait of the man who spied on Pearl Harbor. Our story begins with an arrival in Honolulu, and the return of a spy. Aboard this jet from Tokyo is a man who has not seen this island for twenty years. His last view came a few weeks after the attack on Pearl Harbor, an attack he helped make possible.

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Planes, Trains, And A Vintage Cab

It wasn't exactly as elegant as "Around the World in 80 Days." There were no hot-air balloons to fly, no elephants to ride. None of us looked half as good as David Niven or Shirley MacLaine. Instead, you might think of it as the reality-based version of "Planes, Trains and Automobiles," in which three newspaper reporters set out yesterday…

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Planet Earth Intro

"A hundred years ago, there were one and a half billion people on Earth. Now, over six billion crowd our fragile planet. But even so, there are still places barely touched by humanity. This series will take you to the last wildernesses and show you the planet and its wildlife as you have never seen them before."

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Plants

Like animals, plants need food and water. But what sets them apart is their struggle for light. Plants must have light in order to grow and will do anything to get as much as they need. The forest might appear to be the perfect place for plants to thrive yet down here on the forest floor is one of the hardest places imaginable for a young plant to begin its life. The canopy above is so thick that only a little sunlight can filter through. For this sampling, too little sunlight means death. But plants on the forest floor need not be passive. If the light won’t come to them, they can go to the light. But they still have a problem, the light is 50 meters above them so they must climb. It’s much easier to use another plant as scaffolding. But they wont get very high unless they can hold on tight. Like fingertips searching for a hold this Ivy’s adhesive pads grip the bog. instead of sticking to the trees, some climbers use sharp claws. The cat’s claw creeper hooks it’s tendrils into the tiniest crevasses and hauls itself to the top. With every meter it climbs the light gets a little stronger, fueling more growth.

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Plate Tectonics

Interior heat churns our living planet to self-renewal and drives its crustal plates. Earthquakes occur at their boundaries. Where an ocean ridge marks a spreading zone, upwelling molten rock makes new seafloor. Magma can also break through a plate at a hotspot, building volcanoes that plate motion carries away. When plates collide, continental crust crumples into mountains and the seafloor dives, creating a deep trench.

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Plymouth, Ma

At the beginning of the century, Leyden Street and the Town Square were the center of town activities in Plymouth. The Town Square had the old elms planted in 1784, the First Parish Church with its bell cast by Paul Revere in 1801, and the Town House. Leyden Street was near the Town Brook and had been the first street built in Plymouth. By 1800, early settler’s homes were replaced with new, larger ones extending from the Town Square to the waterfront. In 1900, Plymouth’s population had grown to about 8,000, and there were nearly 1,500 houses. Its citizens were ethnically and culturally diverse; in fact, a little over 30% of the population was foreign born.

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Presidential Movers-Modern Marvels

The Office of the President of the United States needed the biggest, fastest, most advanced plane available. In 1959 President Eisenhower would become a presidential traveler on the first of a line of presidential jets. So confident was the Air Force that Harry Truman would lose the 1948 presidential election that it remodeled a constellation 4 engine nicknamed the “Dew Drop” for his opponent Thomas E. Dewey. Presidential Movers will return on Modern Marvels

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Prohibition 1 (Expanded)

For more than a century, Americans argued fiercely over what to do about the age-old problem of drunkenness. That battle would eventually lead to an amendment to the constitution of the United States - Prohibition - that would turn millions of law-abiding Americans into lawbreakers. Prohibition would pit the countryside against the cities, natives against newcomers, protestants against catholics. It would raise questions about the proper role of government. About individual rights and responsibilities. About means and ends…and unintended consequences…and who is and who is not a real American.

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Pyramids of Death

They are all that remains of a an ancient super city.

A civilization that rose from nothing to dominate a continent.

Then vanished.

These pyramids hold the secret to a spectacular rise and fall.

Secrets that paint a picture of a lost paradise.

A Dark Secret.

And a chilling fate.

Why would an entire civilization abandon everything it has built?

After centuries of silence the pyramids of Teotihuacan

have a story to tell.

Contributed by Richurd

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Quiet Victories

When the Gallaudet University women’s basketball team plays, it’s always the other side who’s got the handicap. This was clear even before Wayne Coffey, sportswriter and self-avowed basketball fanatic, had the idea that following the Lady Bison around for the 1999-2000 season would make a great story. A year earlier, this Division III school had qualified for the NCAA Tournament for only the second time in Gallaudet’s history –finishing the season 24–6, and only two games out of the Final Four. These results would be a coup for any university sports program, but in this case, the showing goes way beyond mere triumph –for the Bison attend the world’s only university for the hearing impaired. Every member of the women’s basketball team is deaf. The result of Coffey’s observations, documented in his book, Winning Sounds Like This, makes clear from the start that deafness, like brown eyes or long limbs, is just one of the many attributes that define this group of remarkable young women.

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Quiz Show

It was late 1956, and millions of Americans sat transfixed before their televisions, watching two men locked in soundproof booths pull facts, names, and dates out of their memories to answer questions worth thousands of dollars. One competitor was Charles Van Doren, a handsome 32- year-old English instructor at Columbia University. The other was unglamorous, working-class Herbert Stempel, a 29-year-old “human computer” from New York City. The wildly popular show on which they staged their battle of wits was “Twenty-One”.

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Radiation

Radiation is a form of energy, released in waves called “electromagnetic waves.” The different types of electromagnetic energy fall into categories according to the size of their wavelengths. Radiation includes gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet rays, microwaves, visible light, infrared light, radio waves, television broadcast waves, and radar waves. Radiation at the lower end, gamma rays and x-rays, is called “ionizing radiation,” which means that it involves a change in the structure of atoms when the energy is released. Non-ionizing radiation, the higher end of the scale, does involve a change in atomic structure.

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Radio City Music Hall

For many children in New York, Christmas meant the yearly extravaganza at Radio City Music Hall. For some kids in other areas, the holiday season meant Santa Claus and decorated fir trees. But in New York, it was Radio City ... the huge resplendent hall, the Rockettes, and the reenactment of the Living Nativity scene, complete with wise men and suspended angels, live camels, and finally, a jubilant rendition of “O Holy Night.” The show itself, then only a half-hour long, was accompanied by a motion picture, usually something starring June Allyson, Esther Williams, or Jane Powell.

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Rainforests

The world’s largest tropical rainforests are in South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Rainforests are characterized by high rainfall. Tropical rainforests receive from 60 to 160 inches of precipitation that is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The combination of constant warmth and abundant moisture makes the tropical rainforest a suitable environment for many plants and animals. The hot and humid conditions make tropical rainforests an ideal environment for bacteria and other microorganisms. Because these organisms remain active throughout the year, they quickly decompose matter on the forest floor. The decomposition of leaf litter adds nutrients to the soil. But in the tropical rainforest, plants grow so fast that they rapidly consume the nutrients from the decomposed leaf litter. As a result, most of the nutrients are contained in the trees and other plants rather than in the soil.

Rainforests are home to two-thirds of all the living animal and plant species on the planet. It has been estimated that many hundreds of millions of new species of plants, insects, and microorganisms are still undiscovered and as yet unnamed by science. Rainforests support a very broad array of mammals, reptiles, birds and invertebrates. Rainforests are also often called the “Earth’s lungs”. Tropical rain forests are called the world’s largest “pharmacy” because of the large amount of natural “medicines” discovered there. For example, rain forests contain the basic ingredients of hormonal contraception methods, cocaine, stimulants, and tranquilizing drugs. Rain forests play an important role in maintaining biological diversity, modulating precipitation infiltration and flooding, increasing scientific knowledge and in the spiritual well-being of humans. Such ecosystem services are of use to humans without the need for any modification or management of the forest itself.

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Rap Music Documentary Intro

he tension of competitive rivalries is often a key ingredient for creating art. A young renaissance painter named Leonardo Da Vinci engaged in a battle of words with a great master Michelangelo. Brach and Picasso were so similar in their cubist style it was difficult to tell who painted what. The traditionalist Brahms and the avant-garde Bruckner created a division among classical music enthusiasts. Fights were known to breakout before premieres. And long nights on the road would provide opportunity for musical warfare between jazz greats Bird and Coltrane. One musical art form born in the inner city with roots in Jamaica dancehall music embraced this spirit of competition like no other, creating a provocative world of words taunts and insults. This musical art form would create a culture called hip-hop. And thus began the battle of MC's.

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Rat Attack

It is 1959: in this remote corner of India, freshly dug graves, too numerous to count, speak of an unfathomable horror. In the forests, men desperately search for food, as famine stalks the countryside. Mothers dig up roots to fill bellies. Some hike hundreds of miles to find rice for their starving children.
But it is the cause of this calamity that totally defies explanation. It is a natural disaster unlike any other, one that comes, not on the wind, like a cyclone or drought, but on four legs and by the millions. It is a plague of rats.
Now, exactly 48 years later, an almost identical plague is sweeping the country again. Across the region, colossal armies of rats rampage through the countryside, obliterating rice crops, leaving nothing.
Local tradition says the rats pour out of the bamboo trees, that the forest gives rise to the plague. But what is the real cause?
Scientists know little more about this onslaught than they did almost half a century ago. That's about to change.
Biologists are racing to the scene of an event so steeped in myth, they don't know what they'll find.
And they don't have much time to figure it out.
Is there any way to avoid it?
It's a Rat Attack, right now, on this NOVA/National Geographic Special.

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Red Colobus

A vivid red on the coat and an arc of white hairs radiating from the face mark the Zanzibar red colobus. Extremely long feet allow this monkey to leap prodigiously in the treetops; however, as forests disappear, and in the absence of a major predator, this tree-dwelling species also spends time on the ground. Females have just one infant every three to five years. Because of this low reproductive rate, a restricted range, a steadily shrinking habitat, and mortality from roadkills, the red colobus on Zanzibar Island is one of Africa’s most threatened species.

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Revealed Secret History of the Freemasons

London's Black Friar's Bridge - the scene of a crime that would put the Freemasons in the crosshairs of popular fears. On June 18th, 1982, a body was found hanging beneath the bridge. The victim was Roberto Calvi, a 62 year old Italian banker.

On his body was a fake passport and $15,000 cash. His pockets were stuffed with bricks. It appeared to be a murder staged to send a message --but from whom?

Some believe it was the mafia. Other suggest the symbolism was masonic. The bricks in the pockets suggested stone masons. The bridge where the body was found is close to the masonic Grand Lodge in London. And even it's name - Black Friar - was the nickname for a secretive group to which Roberto Calvi belonged. An outlawed organization called Propoganda Due (doo-ay) or "P2." And P2 had been a lodge of the freemasons.

**********
Contributor's note: You can find this on YouTube under the same title. This clip is taken from the actually beginning of the show after a 10 minute buildup of teasing information. If you seek for it, the script begins at 10:00 into the video

Transcribed by TxTom

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Robespierre

At the height of its power, the most glorious kingdom in Eighteenth Century Europe
would face a mightier foe ... the power of its own people.

One man would rise to inspire the nation to cast aside a reluctant king, and a hated queen;
and a new Republic would be born ... in blood! The blood of The French Revolution.

1794 ... La Conciergerie prison, an impenetrable fortress in the middle of The River Seine,
dank and rat-infested. it is known as "death's antechamber." Inside, the "voice" of a young
nation is about to be silenced. His hair shorn and his neck laid bare for the blade of the
guillotine, Maximilien Robespierre makes ready to pay, for the cataclysm he left in his wake,
the explosion of events that became The French Revolution.

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Robots

In the living room of the future, a man gestures from the couch. A robot rolls over and asks what he wants. Tea, he says. Another robot in the kitchen pours a cup and hands it to the wheeled humanoid, who, guided by sensors in the floor and furniture, delivers it without spilling a drop. This, say researchers, may be how many elderly are cared for in a decade or two: in their homes, by robots. But first, let’s take a look at the first robots in history.

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Rome

Rome in the year 2000 is expecting 13 million visitors in the great Jubilee of the Incarnation of Christ, to take place at St. Peter’s and other basilicas. The Mayor of Rome has promised that restoration of many monuments will be finished in time for the celebration…

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Roses

Roses prefer a sheltered, sunny spot and well drained soil; but otherwise, these paragons are surprisingly easy going and will succeed in most gardens or backyards. In fact shrub roses will flourish on quite light, even poor soils. It is important to give your roses a really good start. This means some digging. So whether you are planning to plant a single rose or a large bed, it is advisable to double dig so the subsoil is well broken up, especially if drainage is less than perfect.

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Royal Jelly

Royal Jelly is one of the most amazing food substances found in nature. It's not honey or pollen. It is actually the food of the Queen Bee, and her longevity can be traced to her exclusive Royal Jelly diet. She lives almost six years, while worker bees, which eat only honey and pollen, live about six weeks! Astoundingly, If you take a Queen Bee off her diet of Royal Jelly. She lives only six weeks just like a worker bee! And this rare and remarkable substance cannot be duplicated in a lab; it can only be harvested in nature.

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Russian Art

When speaking about ancient Russian art, we traditionally divide it into a number of periods. The first period of ancient Russian art, including jewellery art, is the period before the Mongol invasion – starting from the adoption of Christianity by the Byzantine Empire until the beginning of the Mongol invasion. What was the most typical for that period? Undoubtedly, all kind of Byzantine influences, as the Slavic culture was influenced by the Christian iconography. Craftsmen coming from the Byzantine Empire brought some new techniques and new forms that inspired jewellery art as well.
This suggests, of course, that Russia began to regard itself as a powerful, strong state, which, in fact, it was. On the other hand, with regard to the 17th century we can already talk about European influences. But of course, the era of Peter the Great was a turning point for Russia in this respect.

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Sailing Around The World

For the serious sailor, crossing the ocean is the ultimate challenge. The most intrepid even attempt to sail around the world alone. One was Lisa Clayton. She did it in 1995. But others have survived the ocean under more extreme circumstances. And sometimes it wasn't by choice. In November 1942, a British merchant ship was torpedoed by a German U-boat. The crew...

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Science of Dogs

Today is no different, except that on a routine sweep, the dog finds something, and as rehearsed, alerts the trainer. A second dog confirms the discovery. Officials start clearing the area as bewildered passengers look on. After several tense minutes, we learn that this is just a drill. No one, not even the trainer, knows where a planted item will be. Incredibly, inside this inconspicuous bag, were trace amounts of an explosive chemical component, amounts so slight, they were smaller than a grain of sand. And found by this dog. These dogs sense of smell is so acute, they can sniff through things, like luggage. A sort-of x-ray vision, only better: it’s a man-made machine that doesn’t break down.

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Scientology Script

DIRECTIONS:
COMMANDING VOICE MEANINGFUL AND DEEP
Dianetics. By L. Ron Hubbard.
Discover the Reactive Mind,
the source of your stress,
self-doubt and unwanted
emotions--and get rid of it.
Go to Dianetics.org
There are words to describe every step we take
Every moment
Every memory
Every landmark
Milestone
Words for the joy
And the sorrow
The victories and the triumphs
The defeat that pushes us into the shadows
And the inspiration that brings us back
But through all of life’s journey
There is no language adequate to describe
The ultimate heights you can attain
Your full potential.
DIRECTIONS:
WITH PRESENCE, CERTAIN, SURE AND FRIENDLY AT THE SAME TIME, LIKE YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT A FAMILY MEMBER THAT YOU LOVED AND NOW ISN'T AROUND ANYMORE, BUT YOU ARE DESCRIBING HIM WITH ALL THE GOOD THOUGHTS AND MEMORIES YOU HAVE ABOUT HIM.
He was the nation’s youngest Eagle Scout at the age of 13
And twice journeyed to Asia before the advent of commercial flight
He attended America’s first class on nuclear physics
And was a pioneer at the dawn of American aviation
He led expeditions into then remote islands as a member of the famed Explorer’s Club
And was a giant in the Golden Age of Pulp Fiction
He was a master mariner, licensed to captain vessels on any ocean
And a United States Naval Officer who commanded corvettes during World War II
His landmark work on the human mind rode bestseller lists for 100 consecutive weeks
And he’s the most published and translated author of all time
He is L. Ron Hubbard, founder of Scientology

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Script submitted by Andre Hughes

Although voices within the US Military expressed caution regarding the use of the new weapon against Japan, Truman was convinced that the bomb was the correct and only option. Six months of intense strategic fire-bombing of 37 Japanese cities had done little to break the Hirohito regime’s resolve, and Japan continued to resolutely ignore the demand for unconditional surrender made at Potsdam. In such circumstances, the use of the atom bomb was seen as the best means of forcing Japan to surrender, and ending the war. The alternative, of an Allied invasion of the Japanese home islands, was expected to cost hundreds of thousands of casualties.
The effects of the attack were devastating. The predicted Japanese surrender, which came on 15 August - just six days after the detonation over Nagasaki - ended World War II. Yet the shocking human effects soon led many to cast doubts upon the use of this weapon. The first western scientists, servicemen and journalists to arrive on the scene produced vivid and heartrending reports describing a charred landscape populated by hideously burnt people, coughing up and urinating blood and waiting to die.

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Script submitted by jerry lino

Every moment has a story. And every story matters

The first men painted stories on stone walls, the ancient Egyptians chose the chisel instead.

The Incans told story with dances and fire, aborigines told it with star and spear.

Stories are at the very essence of human life. They count the breaths of every sunrise, the beats of every emotion and the silence of every heart. Stories take the fleeting temporal and makes them eternal.

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Sea Creatures

Up to two feet across from tip to tip, sea stars pry open mussels and clams with their muscular “arms,” although they are not above scavenging a meal as well. Brittle stars, their more slender cousins, capture live fish, squid, and crabs with highly mobile, graceful arms. Omnivorous sea urchins scrape the surface of kelps and algae-encrusted rocks with an elaborate jaw apparatus, named Aristotle’s lantern for its first describer. Sand dollars, which are basically flattened sea urchins, burrow through sediment in search of microorganisms that dwell on sand grains. Other echinoderms filter small creatures from seawater: the swaying arms of sea feathers, deep-water sea lilies, and some brittle stars reach out to capture tiny plants and animals floating by.

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Sea Fans

Legend tells ... of a time long ago ... when the first group of Polynesian sea ferries set ashore on this distant world. This paradise, home of the unification of two great powers -- the sky and the sea -- this land of gentle winds and soothing rains, where giant mountains lifted their heads in fiery display and made it home. Let’s go diving in a place that features an unrivaled collection of World War II shipwrecks. The fastest growing corals and sponges in the world, and unlimited diving from one of the world’s largest diving ships, the U.S.S. Thorfin. If you haven’t guessed by now, we’re talking about diving Truk Lagoon. The Fuji Kawa Maru, one of the most popular dive wrecks, was built in 1938 as a combination cargo and passenger ship.

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Seas of life 3

MOST OF THE FISH HERE ARE PERMANANET RESIDENTS, FEEDING ON PLANKTON, THE TINY FLOATING PLANTS AND ANIMALS THAT ARE NOURISHED BY THE RICHNESS BROUGHT UP FROM THE DEPTHS.
AND THEY IN TURN, ATTRACT VISITORS FROM THE OPEN OCEAN.......... TUNA....
THE PLANKTON FEEDERS ARE EASY TARGETS. ALL THIS ACTION ATTRACTS EVEN LARGER PREDATORS.
SHARKS... HUNDREDS OF SHARKS.
SILKY SHARKS ARE NORMALLY OCEANGOING SPECIES. BUT SEA MOUNTS IN THE EASTERN PACIFIC , LIKE COCOS, MALPELO, AND THE GALAPAGOS, ATTRACT SILKIES IN HUGE GROUPS UP TO 500 STRONG.
SILKIES SEEM TO SPECIALIZE IN TAKING INJURED FISH AND CONSTANTLY CIRCLE SEA MOUNTS ON THE LOOKOUT FOR THE CHANCE TO DO SO. BUT SILKIES ARE NOT THE ONLY VISITORS.
HAMMER HEADS GATHER IN SOME OF THE LARGEST SHARK SHOALS TO BE FOUND ANYWHERE IN THE OCEAN.
SOMETIMES THOUSANDS WILL CIRCLE OVER A SINGLE SEA MOUNT.
BUT THESE SHARKS ARE NOT HERE FOR FOOD. THEY HAVE COME FOR ANOTHER REASON. SOME OF THE LOCALS
PROVIDE A CLEANING SERVICE. FOLLOWING THE LAST EL NINO YEAR, WHEN A RISE IN WATER TEMPERATURES CAUSED MANY SHARKS TO SUFFER FROM FUNGAL INFECTION. THE NUMBER OF HAMMERHEADS VISITING THE SEA MOUNTS REACHED RECORD LEVELS.
NUTRIENTS ALSO WELL UP TO THE SURFACE ALONG THE COAST OF THE CONTINENTS.
THIS IS NATAL, ON SOUTH AFRICA'S EASTERN SEABOARD. IT'S JUNE, AND JUST OFFSHORE, STRANGE BLACK PATCHES HAVE APPEARED.
THEY LOOK LIKE IMMENSE OIL SLICKS UP TO A MILE LONG, BUT THIS IS A LIVING SLICK. MILLIONS AND MILLIONS SARDINES ON A MARINE MIGRATION THAT, IN TERMS OF SHEER BIOMASS, RIVALS THAT OF THE WILDEBEAST ON
GRASSLAND OF AFRICA.
THESE FISH LIVE FOR MOST OF THE TIME IN THE COLD WATERS SOUTH OF THE CAPE. BUT EACH YEAR, THE COASTAL CURRENTS REVERSE. THE WARM AGHULAS CURRENT THAT USUALLY FLOWS DOWN FROM THE NORTH HAS BEEN DISPLACED BY THE COLD WATER COMING UP FROM THE SOUTH, AND THAT HAS BROUGHT UP RICH NUTRIENTS. THEY, IN TURN, HAVE CREATED A BLOOM OF PLANCTON, AND THE SARDINES ARE NOW FEASTING ON IT. AS THE SARDINES TRAVEL NORTH, A WHOLE CARAVAN OF PREDATORS FOLLOW THEM. THOUSANDS OF CAPE GANNETS TRACK THE SARDINES. THEY NESTLED OFF THE CAPE AND TIMED THEIR BREEDING SO THAT THEIR NEWLY FLEDGED CHICKS CAN JOIN THEM IN PURSUING THE SHOALS.
BELLOW WATER, HUNDREDS OF SHARKS HAVE ALSO JOINED THE CARAVAN. THESE ARE BRONZE WHALER SHARKS,
A COLD-WATER SPECIES THAT NORMALLY LIVES MUCH FURTHER SOUTH,

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seas of life part 2

THE SHEER PHYSICAL POWER OF THE OCEAN DOMINATES OUR PLANET. IT PROFOUNDLY INFLUENCES THE WEATHER OF ALL THE WORLD.

WATER VAPOR RISING FROM IT FORMS THE CLOUDS AND GENERATES STORMS THAT ULTIMATELY WILL DRENCH THE LAND. THE GREAT WAVES THAT ROAR IN TOWARDS THE SHORES ARE DRAMATIC DEMONSTRATIONS OF IT'S POWER. WAVES ORIGINATE FAR OUT AT SEA. THERE , EVEN GENTLE BREEZES CAN CAUSE RIPPLES, AND RIPPLES GROW INTO SWELLS. OUT IN THE OPEN OCEAN , UNIMPEDED BY LAND, SUCH SWELLS CAN BECOME GIGANTIC. IT'S ONLY WHEN AN OCEAN SWELL EVENTUALLY REACHES SHALLOW WATER THAT IT'S STARTS TO BREAK.

AS IT APPROACHES THE COAST THE WATER AT THE BOTTOM OF THE SWELL IS SLOWED BY CONTACT WITH THE SEABED. THE TOP OF THE SWELL STILL TRAVELING FAST.STARTS TO ROLL OVER AND SO THE WAVE BREAKS.

THE OCEAN NEVER RESTS. HUGE CURRENTS, SUCH AS THE GULF STREAM, KEEP IT'S WATER CONSTANTLY ON THE MOVE ALL'ROUND THE GLOBE. IT'S THESE CURRENTS MORE THAN ANY OTHER FACTOR THAT CONTROL THE DISTRIBUTION OF NUTRIENTS AND LIFE IN THE SEAS.

A TINY ISLAND LOST IN THE MIDST OF THE PACIFIC. IT'S THE TIP OF A HUGE MOUNTAIN THAT RISES PRECIPITOUSLY FROM THE SEAFLOOR THOUSANDS OF METERS BELOW. THE NEAREST LAND IS 300 MILES AWAY. ISOLATED SEA MOUNTS LIKE THIS ONE CREATE OASES WHERE LIFE CAN FLOURISH IN THE COMPARATIVELY EMPTY EXPANSES OF THE OPEN OCEAN. BUT ALL THE CREATURES THAT SWIM BESIDE IT WOULD NOT BE HERE WERE IT NOT FOR ONE KEY FACTOR..... THE DEEP OCEAN CURRENTS.

FAR BELOW THE SURFACE, THEY COLLIDE WITH ISLAND'S FLANKS AND ARE DEFLECTED UPWARDS, BRINGING WITH THEM FROM THE DEPTHS A RICH SOUP OF NUTRIENTS.

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Secret Societies

Secret societies have an internal structure not at all different from many business or political models. They have a series of held beliefs and rituals, sometimes they even have their own set of holidays and festivals. The difference is that those events and beliefs are hidden and secret. They hide them away in symbols and codes. They basically live “under the radar” of common public awareness, and this too, like the dualism of their inner struggle, is an outgrowth of human nature.

The power base of secret societies is not unlike the psychology studies of Madison Avenue advertising. They understand the basics of human nature and how to manipulate it, and this is how they have gained their power for centuries. Much of their closely guarded secret information was held long before it became public, not just in the esoteric reading of the heavenly host, but also information on such subjects as navigation and mathematical properties of construction.

Many of the symbols that we see used today that are now a matter of every day life can be related back to ancient times and the worship of the heavenly host. Star tracking and knowledge of how to read the stars and their positions were matters of great survival to the societies of long ago which had no compass or wrist watch. This was the practice of literally moving your mind into the heavens and using that information for guidance and navigation. This information became rigorously guarded and secret societies emerged.

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Shark Attack

In recent years, an unusual spate of deadly shark attacks has gripped Australia, resulting in five deaths in ten months. At the same time, great white sharks have begun appearing in growing numbers off the beaches of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, not far from the waters where Steven Spielberg filmed the ultimate shark fright film, Jaws. What's behind the mysterious arrival of this apex predator in an area where they've rarely been seen for hundreds of years? Are deadly encounters with tourists inevitable? To separate fact from fear, leading shark experts in Australia and the United States went out to discover the science behind the great white's hunting instincts. Do sharks ever target humans, or is each attack a tragic case of mistaken identity? And can a deeper understanding of shark senses lead scientists to design effective deterrents and help prevent future attacks?

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Sharks

(Could be read as a documentary appealing to either adults or children)

Sharks are amazing fish that have been around since long before the dinosaurs existed. They live in waters all over the world, in every ocean and even in some rivers and lakes. Sharks' diets vary greatly, but they area ll carnivores. Sharks may have up to 3,000 teeth at one time. Most sharks to not chew their food, but gulp it down whole in large pieces. The teeth are arranged in rows; when one tooth is damaged or lost, it is replaced by another. Unlike bony fish, sharks have no bones. Their skeletons are made of cartilage, which is a tough, fibrous substance, not nearly as hard as bone.

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Snakes

Snakes belong to a group of animals called reptiles. Every snake has a long legless body covered with scales, and the tongue that constantly flickers in and out of it’s mouth. By contracting and expanding their muscular bodies snakes can move very quickly in S-shape waves along the ground or in the water.

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Snakes 2

King cobras hunt at dusk for birds, rats, lizards, and other snakes. They kill their prey by biting and injecting their deadly venom through two fangs in the front of their mouths. The venom goes straight into the blood stream of the victim and either paralyzes or kills it.

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Solar Power

The race is on to install solar panels in American homes thanks to generous government incentives such the $3.2 billion solar initiative California launched in January. Despite the minuscule amount of solar power generated today -- roughly one-thirtieth of 1% of all the electricity produced in the U.S. -- recent technological advances and a continued decline in the price of solar systems are prompting more homeowners to ask if this renewable energy source is now worth the investment. Analysts say they are still crunching the numbers when it comes to deciding whether residential solar systems, also referred to as photovoltaic or PV systems, make economic sense. The answer hinges on how much and how fast solar can cut a homeowner's utility bills and thus how long it takes to pay off the initial investment to add solar panels to a home.

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Solder

Solder is a metal alloy, made by combining tin and lead in different proportions. Here the proportions are equal, so it’s known as fifty-fifty solder ... fifty percent tin and fifty percent lead. A sixty-forty solder would consist of sixty percent tin and forty percent lead. You can find these percentages marked on various types of solder available, and sometimes only the tin percentage is shown. The striking fact about solder is its low melting point. Pure lead has a melting point of 325 degrees Celsius ... pure tin, a melting point of 232 degrees. But when you combine them into a 50-50 solder, the melting point drops to 216 degrees ...

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Solzhenitsyn Nobel lecture

...but a work of art bears within itself its own verification.

Conceptions which are devised, or stretched, do not stand being portrayed in images ... they all come crashing down ... appear sickly and pale ... convince no one.

But those works of art which have 'scooped up' the truth, and presented it to us as a living force ... they take hold of us ... compel us ... and nobody ever, not even in ages to come,
will appear to refute them.

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Southern Africa

During the dry season in southern Africa, any pool is bound to be a center of life as thirsty and dusty beasts gather to drink, bathe, or wallow. But a water hole can also be an arena in which any lapse of attention may leave one creature open to attack from another that has come not only to drink but also to feed.

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Space Shuttle Challenger

January 28th, 1986. America was shocked by a bolt out of the blue...a devastation that shattered the U.S. Space program. On January 28th, 1986, as school children looked skyward, the Space Shuttle Challenger flight, with it's crew of seven ended in disaster.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka can be divided into four regions: the central highlands, the southwest, the east, and the northern lowlands. The central highlands, with an average elevation of more than 5,000 feet, dominate the island’s relief. The terrain consists of high mountains and plateaus, narrow gorges, and deep river valleys. Near their center is the highest point on the island, Pidurutala Peak, which is 8,281 feet. The southwestern region is also mountainous and contains a continuation of the Rakwana mountain range of the central highlands. The eastern region is an undulating plain dotted with isolated hills.

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Stained Glass

There was a good dollop of whimsy in the nineteenth-century creative mind, and when it came to designing floral and scenic decorative glass, it was easy to extend the quest for realism into the realm of animal forms. Birds are perhaps the most popular animals depicted, which is interesting, given the difficulty of effectively rendering their sharp beaks and long, thin legs.

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Staircase Artist

Staircases, to most people, they're simply a way to go up, or down. But, to a select few they're a portal.

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Star Gazing

Known variously as the Seven Sisters, the Seven Virgins, and the Daughters of Atlas, the Pleiades (plee-uh-dees) have been held in high esteem through the ages. Temples in ancient Greece were built to face them, as was a passage leading from the Great Pyramid at Giza. In Japan, the Feast of Lanterns is a remnant of ancient rites honoring these stars. (The Japanese word for the cluster is, by the way, subaru, which is why the stars figure in the car company’s logo.) The entire star swarm is enveloped in a faint, diffuse cloud--apparently dust and perhaps larger particles that reflect starlight. In Locksley Hall, Tennyson wrote that the Pleiades glitter like “fireflies tangled in a silver braid.”

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Supershark Highway

It’s man…and shark. As one patrols its undersea realm, the other goes on the hunt. For clues to one of nature’s most mysterious creatures: the hammerhead shark. What makes this strange shark tick? Why do so many gather at once? And where are they all going? Dive into the flow…of the amazing Supershark Highway.

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Survival Story Introduction

Thanks to the classic movie "JAWS", the story of the Indianapolis is known to millions as the worst shark attack of all time. But behind the Hollywood legend, lies one of the most extraordinary survival stories of WWII.

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Swords

The elegant and powerful sword is the pinnacle of all blade implements, the culmination of blade making technology. Though it's construction is more complex, it's role is far simpler than the ax or knife, each only part-time weapons. The sword is a killer, through and through.

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Synthetics

A synthetic material is one that does not occur naturally. Some synthetics are the result of bringing chemicals together in an artificial environment and putting them through a controlled process. Plastic and nylon are examples of this group of synthetics. Other synthetics include synthetic fuels and diamonds. A synthetic material, such as synthetic diamond, is made by using knowledge of how chemicals and physical forces work in nature to produce the real diamond. The synthetic form uses some of the same chemicals and sets up ways of mimicking nature to create an artificial or synthetic equivalent of the real thing.

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T-Rex: Science Channel

A new generation of paleontologists are rewriting the history of T-Rex. New technological developments have made it possible for us to step back nearly 65 million years. And for the first time ever scientists are able to determine the sex of a T-Rex. And you thought dinosaurs were extinct. T-Rex. Only on the Science Channel. A world without science is a world without history.

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Tales from the Hive

Bees have been busy for millions of years now, and they're not about to stop anytime soon. Foragers still return from the fields with nectar, while guard bees still watch and wait. There's treasure in this beekeeper's hive, and all are sworn to protect it...with their lives. Suddenly, an intruder comes flying in: a wasp, hoping to capture a bee and feed it to its hungry grubs. The battle begins in earnest. The wasp is larger, but the bees make up in numbers what they lack in strength. They sting the invader relentlessly. For the individual bee, it's a suicide attack: the bee's stinger and part of its abdomen will be ripped from its body when it pulls away. But the defense of the colony is the only thing that matters. Paralyzed by venom, mortally wounded, the wasp is unceremoniously dragged to the edge of the hive, and dumped. Just an ordinary day of birth, death, sex, and violence...and it's not even noon yet.

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Tall Grasslands

What really made the long, lonely stretches of the tall grass so attractive, was the domesticated seed from the old grasslands of Eurasia, wheat. Especially hard red winter wheat. It grew in spectacular fashion in the harsh climate of the middle third of North America.

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Teg Gray Narrations

Documentary

A jet of X-rays from a super massive black hole 12.4 billion light years from Earth has been detected by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. This is the most distant X-ray jet ever observed and gives astronomers a glimpse into the explosive activity associated with the growth of super massive black holes in the early universe.
Giant black holes at the centers of galaxies can pull in matter at a rapid rate producing the quasar phenomenon. The energy released as particles fall toward the black hole generates intense radiation and powerful beams of high-energy particles that blast away from the black hole at nearly the speed of light. These particle beams can interact with magnetic fields or ambient photons to produce jets of radiation.

E-Learning:

Our relationship with technology is constantly evolving. From the emergence of mobile technology, we’re more connected, we’re working on-the-go, and we’re skilled multi-taskers. Technology such as laptops, PDAs and mobile phones enable all of that.

With work occurring on-the-go, it comes as an inherent risk to Herman Miller, in terms of data security. To ensure, we’re safe from theft, loss and disclosure of confidential information, it’s essential we follow some guidelines.

In this training, we’ll discuss mobile security risks and ways you can avoid them. Please review this training periodically to identify ways you can apply these tips and tricks in your job.

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Thailand

Set within a lush, tropical landscape, Thailand is a theater of cultural and sensual contrasts for the visitor. The long, rich heritage and abundant natural resources of this proud Buddhist nation jostle for space within the dynamism of a country undergoing economic boom and bust. In turns zestful and tranquil, resplendent and subtle, Thailand is always compelling.

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The Battle of Kursk

As winter approached, the German High Command planned huge quantities of tanks, men and material for a titanic spring offensive. The Red Army correctly predicted that the blow would come at a large bulge in the front near Kursk. Knowing the attack would be powerful, they frantically prepared their defenses. So week-by-week through the winter and early spring, both sides built strength upon strength for the coming battle, setting the stage for the most intense and destructive tank battle ever seen. The irresistable German offense was about to collide with the immoveable Russian defense in a cauldron of steel, explosives and blood.

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The 2011 Tohumu Earthquake Tragedy

By most measures, humans are considered the planet's most successful creatures, living thickly upon land, sea and even in the air. But on March 11, 2011, in Sendai, Japan, we, the world's master builders, met our limitations. As you know, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake not only shook our works into smithereens, it followed up the shaking with massive waves of water that washed kilometers inland, sweeping away homes, car, trees and people.

As clever, intelligent and powerful as we think we are we were helpless when the ground gave way and the sea broke its bounds.

Some of us expounded the scientific facts. We noted the height of the wall of water and the location of the fault. We calculated that the quake moved portions of Japan four meters closer to North America. Some parts of the Pacific Plate moved as much as 20 meters west - one of the largest fault movements ever recorded. The powerful shaking actually shifted the Earth's axis by some 16.5 centimeters, speeding up the Earth's rotation and permanently shortening each subsequent day by 1.8 millionths of a second.

The 2011 Tohumu earthquake will go down in history as one of the greatest natural disasters of all time. In its wake, we human beings, having been designed to reflect on such things, try to understand our pain and loss. We struggle to find answers. And on everyone's mind, no matter their other occupations in the light of this tragedy, is this question: "Why?".

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The Ballistic Missile Defense Program

The Ballistic Missile Defense Program, regarded by some U.S. agencies as the benchmark of effective technology transfer, has initiated spin-offs of 23 new businesses, produced 115 patents and 125 joint venture and licensing agreements, and claims a direct link to more than 114 new products or systems on the market. The former Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has developed an aggressive technology transition program over the past eight years, fueled initially by strong support from visionary SDIO leaders in the mid-1980s.

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The Battle of Berlin

In the spring of 1945, the last major battle of the European war
was fought between the Soviet Union and Hitler's Third Reich.

The battle of Berlin, one of the most bitterly contested offenses
of the second World War, saw a gigantic Russian army of two and a half
million men unleashed in a massive assault designed to crush
Nazi Germany, once and for all.

For the Soviet Union Berlin was the ultimate prize. The city
was the heart of the Reich. It's capture would bring immeasurable
prestige to the conqueror.

Just as important to the Russians, if the Red Army could take Berlin
before the Western Allies much of Central as well as Eastern Europe
could be brought under communist control.

Contributed by Richurd

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The Battle of Kursk

As winter approached, the German High Command planned huge quantities of tanks, men and material for a titanic spring offensive. The Red Army correctly predicted that the blow would come at a large bulge in the front near Kursk. Knowing the attack would be powerful, they frantically prepared their defenses. So week-by-week through the winter and early spring, both sides built strength upon strength for the coming battle, setting the stage for the most intense and destructive tank battle ever seen. The irresistable German offense was about to collide with the immoveable Russian defense in a cauldron of steel, explosives and blood.

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The Building of Timberline Lodge

On any clear day in Portland, Oregon, the view to the east reveals 11,000-ft. Mount Hood, a dormant volcano looming on the skyline. From Portland, the road to Mount Hood is a serpentine ribbon that winds between dense strands of Douglas fir, Ponderosa pine and hemlock. Occasional breaks in the trees open to the sculpted facets of ice and rock on the rough ridges of the mountain. There, slightly more than halfway up the mountainside between the last line of trees and the open snow fields, is a National Historic Landmark called Timberline Lodge.

Timberline Lodge is the only government-owned and sponsored building of its type in America today. Its designers wanted to create an American-Alpine style with a distinct regional identity, so they furnished the building almost entirely with indigenous materials – locally quarried stone, native species of fir and pine, hand-woven fabrics, forged iron – and craft objects characteristic of the 1930’s. (The lodge still contains hundreds of original craft pieces.)

With an architectural character regarded simply as “Cascadian” – a reference to the mountain range that includes Mount Hood – Timberline Lodge was built almost entirely by hand in the depths of the Great Depression, from 1935 – 1937. Timberline also represented a remarkable collaboration of individuals and agencies: It was proposed by private citizens, funded by Congress, organized and engineered under the auspices of the United States Forest Service and built by workers hired by the Works Project Administration (WPA).

(Fine Woodworking Magazine - September/October 1987)

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The Columbus Symphony Orchestra

When most people think of the majors, the first thing that comes to mind is probably a favorite baseball team. But Columbus, Ohio is home to a different kind of major team ... The Columbus Symphony Orchestra. The CSO attained major symphony orchestra status in 1988, from the American Symphony Orchestra League, the top category for orchestras in the United States. The designation signified that the CSO’s budget, number of full-time musicians, and repertoire could be considered in the same category as other orchestras in the U.S., such as Pittsburgh, New York, and Chicago. During the past seven years...

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The Computer As Weapon

In the American Civil War, it was the rifle. In the 1944, Allied Invasion of Europe, the tank. In the Cold War, the I.C.B.M. When military historians look back on the 21st century U.S. Army, they’ll probably agree that the weapon that made the most difference, was the computer. Instead of out numbering the enemy with massive forces and firepower, the armies of the future will outsmart foes with computer technology. Computers will enable troops to access enemy positions more precisely, attack them more rapidly, and even kill more efficiently. The computerization of the battlefield is one of two technology trends that military experts...

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The Crested Screamer

Suddenly the most aggressive of the marshland birds appeared...a Crested Screamer. The Crested Screamer is remarkable for his strident cry and his skin which had thousands of tiny air sacs beneath the surface that increase its ability to float. Although his feet are not webbed, he struts effortlessly through the fields of water hyacinths like a curt quarrelsome prince.

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The Deep Sea

The deep sea, where nightmares are born. meet the lions mane jellyfish. With a Bell that can grow to a diameter of 8 feet, and tentacles over a hundred feet long, it's highly unlikely that it is more afraid of you than vice versa.

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The Eruption of E15

In April 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted for more than a week, causing a flood of meltwater to rush down its slopes, and forced the evacuation of 800 people.

Icy water flooded the volcano’s vent, chilling and fragmenting the lava into tiny particles of silica and ash, which exploded into an eruption plume towering kilometers in height.

The ash cloud carried over Europe where it created the largest air traffic shutdown since World War II. The economic impact was staggering; costing the airline industry an estimated €200 million per day. It was felt as far away as Japan and other Asian countries, where major automobile manufacturers suspended operations for lack of materials and parts, and electronics manufacturers were unable to ship to 25% of their markets.

By August 2010, volcanologists declared E15 to be dormant once again.

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The F-35 Lightning II - Joint Strike Fighter

The F-35 Lightning II, also known as the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), integrates advanced very low observable stealth into a supersonic - highly agile 5th generation fighter.
The capabilities built into the F-35 Lightning II provide the pilot with unprecedented situational awareness and unmatched lethality - and survivability.
While each variant (F-35A, F-35B, F-35C) is uniquely designed to operate from different bases, all three variants set new standards in network-enabled mission systems, sensor fusion, supportability and maintainability.
The world’s most experienced aerospace industry leaders (Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, BAE Systems and the Fighter Engine Team—Pratt & Whitney and GE Rolls-Royce) combine sophisticated manufacturing, engineering and technological capabilities to develop the F-35 Lightning II.
This, along with global partnerships, has been an integral part of the JSF Program. Setting the stage - for reliability and maintainability, the F-35’s built-in sustainment -- establishes new levels - of operational readiness - and helps meet the needs across the spectrum of military operations.
With its host of next-generation technologies and unprecedented capabilities, the F-35 is the world’s most advanced - multirole fighter.

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The French Revolution - History Channel

At the height of the eighteenth centry, the most glorious kingdom in Europe would face a mighty foe.. the power of it's own people.

One man would rise to inspire the nation.. to cast aside a reluctant king.. and a hated queen. And a NEW REPUBLIC would be born in BLOOD... the blood of the French Revolution.

1794, France's ConCiergerie prison, an impenetrable fortress on the banks of the seine river - Dank, rat infested it is known as "Death's Anti-chamber." Inside, the voice of a young nation is about to be silenced. As his hair is shorn and his neck lay bare for the blade of the guillotine, maximilien robespierre prepares to pay for the cataclyism left in his wake - the explosion of events that became THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

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The Geography Of The West

Endless sea of grass, rugged, towering mountains: forest of incredibly tall conifers: dramatic desert landscapes- these are just a few of the images that spring to mind when we think of the West. For centuries. “the west” meant new land to be explored and settled by the European conquerors, immigrants, and their descendants. Likewise for centuries, what Americans called the West kept expanding and moving westward as explorers and settlers discovered the vastness of their new homeland.

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The Gobi Desert

This is the Gobi Desert in Southern Mongolia, one of the most isolated regions on earth. Somehow humans inhabit this desolate region: nomads with wind-chapped faces who hunker down in circular felt tents and raise herds of bony livestock. It is here, deep in the Gobi, that locals noticed earth of an incandescent blue. They named the area Oyu Tulgoi: Turquoise Hill. Oyu Tolgoi is poised to become one of the world’s biggest mines, with some $350 billion worth of copper and gold reserves.

For centuries, Mongolia loomed in the world’s imagination as a byword for land-locked isolation. It is a country the size of Western Europe with fewer than 3 million citizens scatterd across its lonely steppes. Fifteen times as many livestock animals - camels, horses, sheep, cows, goats and yaks - as people, roam the land. Mongolia enjoyed its last heyday during the 13th century where Genghis Khan thundered across the steppes to create the largest land empire the world has ever known. During most of the 20th century, Mongolia slumbered under socialist rule, Even today one-third of its people live as nomads.

But now Mongolia matters, a natural resource boom has transformed the country making it the fastest growing economy on the planet. Today in the wasteland that gave Marco Polo nightmares for years after he traversed it, a colossal encampment rises like a mirage. Massive blue warehouses dot the landscape, while conveyor belts transport rocks from deposits roughly the size of Manhattan.

The Oyu Tolgoi project is the largest foreign investment Mongolia has ever seen. The market demands from countries such as China, Russia and elsewhere could see Mongolia’s GDP rise by as much as 30%. Total employment levels could also rise by as much as 10% over the life of the mine as Oui Tolgoi becomes a major force for change.

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The Hiroshima atomic bomb ends the war

It was the most destructive weapon ever built.

The U.S. labored for years to create it and had doubts over whether to us it or not...

But after months of devastating war in the Pacific, President Truman decided to use it.

It was that or losing thousands of troops in the pending Operation: Downfall...

July 16, 1945 the Enola Gay Climbs to 30,000 feet and drops the 6,300 pound atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japans most densely populated city.

After falling for 43 seconds, the time and barometric trigger started the firing mechanism. A uranium bullet fired down a barrel into a uranium tank - Together they started a nuclear chain reaction. Solid matter began to come apart, releasing untold quantities of energy.

There are no exact figures for the number who died in the instant of the explosion, but tens of thousand of people in the open near the fireball vanished in a fraction of a second.

The War ended, but at what cost?

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The Hiroshima atomic bomb ends world war 2

This is a re-do from a while back. I appreciate any feedback!

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The History of the World - Part 1

Ancient Egypt was inhabited by mummies, and they all wrote in hydraulics. They lived in the Sarah Desert and traveled by Camelot. The climate of the Sarah is such that the inhabitants have to live elsewhere, so certain areas of the desert are cultivated by irritation.
The Pyramids are a range of mountains between France and Spain. The Egyptians built the pyramids in the shape of a huge triangular cube.
The Bible is full of interesting caricatures. In the first book of the Bible, Guinessis, Adam and Eve were created from an apple tree. One of their children, Cain, asked, “Am I my brothers son?”
God asked Abraham to sacrifice Isaac on Mount Montezuma. Jacob, son of Isaac, stole his brother’s birthmark. Jacob was a patriarch who brought up his 12 sons to be patriarchs, but they did not take to it. One of Jacobs sons, Joseph, gave refuse to the Israelites.
Pharoah forced to make the Hebrew slaves to make bread without straw. Moses led them to the Red Sea, where they made unleavened bread, which is bread without ingrediants. Afterwards, Moses went up on Mount Cyanide to get the Ten Commandments. He died before he ever reached Canada.
David was a Hebrew king skilled at playing the liar. He fought with the Finklesteins, a race of people who lived in Biblical times. Soloman, one of David’s sons, had 300 wives and 700 porcupines.
Later came Job, who had one trouble after another. Eventually, he lost all his cattle and all his children and had to go live alone with his wife in the desert.

Contributed by Richurd
Excerpted from "Anguished English" by Richard Lederer

This is a compilation of students answers on test papers,
and whose recollection of his may be some what different from your own.

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The History of the World - Part 2

The Greeks were a highly sculptured people, and without them we wouldn’t have history. The Greeks invented three kinds of columns – Corinthian, ironic, and dorc – and built the Apocalypse. They also had myths. A myth is a female moth.
One myth says that the mother of Achilles dipped him in the River Stynx until he became intollerable. Achilles appears in The Illiad, by Homer. Homer also wrote The Oddity, in which Penelope was the last hardship that Ulysses endured on his journey. Actually, Homer was not written by Homer but by another man of that name.
Socrates was a famous Greek teacher who went around giving people advice. They killed him. Socrates died from an overdose of wedlock. After his death, his career suffered a dramatic decline.
In the Olympic Games, Greeks ran races, jumped, hurled the biscuits, and threw the java. The reward to the victor was a coral wreath.
The Government of Athens was democratic because people took the law into their own hands. There were no wars in Greece, as the mountains were so high that they couldn’t climb over to see what their neighbors were doing. When they fought the Persians, The Greeks were outnumbered because the Persians had more men.

Contributed by Richurd
Excerpt from Anguished English
By Richard Lederer

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The History of the World - Part 3

Eventually, the romans conquered the Greeks. History calls people Romans because they never stayed in one place for very long.
Julius Caesar extinguished himself on the battlefields of Gaul. The Ides if March murdered him because they thought he was going to be made King. Dying, he gasped out the words “Tee hee, Brutus.” Nero was a cruel tyranny who would torture his poor subjects by playing the fiddle to them.
Rome came to have too many luxuries and baths. At Roman banquets, the guests wore garlic in their hair. They took two baths in two days, and that’s the cause of the fall of Rome. Today Rome is full of fallen arches.
Then came the middle ages, when everyone was middle aged. King Alfred conquered the Dames. King Arthur lived in the age of Shivery with brave knights on prancing horses and beautiful women. King Harold mustered his troops before the Battle of Hastings. Joan of Arc was canonized by Bernard Shaw. And victims of the blue bonnet plague grew boobs on their necks. Finally, Magna Carta provided that no man should be hanged twice for the same offence.
In midevil times most people were alliterate. The greatest writer of the futile ages was Chaucer, who wrote many poems and verses and also wrote literature. During this time, people put on morality plays about ghosts, goblins, virgins and other mythical creatures. Another story was about William Tell, who shot an arrow through an apple while standing on his son’s head.
The Renaissance was an age in which more individuals felt the value of their human being. Martin Luther was nailed to the church door at Wittenburg for selling papal indulgences. He died a horrible death, being excommunicated by a bull. It was the painter Donatello’s interest in the female nude that made him the father of the Renaissance.
The government of England was a limited mockery. From the womb of Henry VIII Protestantism was born. He found walking difficult because he had an Abbess on his knee.
Queen Elizabeth was the “Virgin Queen”. As a queen she was a success. When Elizabeth exposed herself before her troops, they all shouted “hurrah.” Then her navy went out and defeated the Spanish Armadillo.
It was an age of great inventions and Discoveries. Guttenberg invented the Bible. Another important invention was the circulation of blood. Sir Walter Raleigh is a historical figure because he invented cigarettes and started smoking. And Sir Francis Drake circumcised the world with a 100-foot clipper.

Contributed by Richurd
Excerpt from "Anguished English" by Richard Lederer.

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The Horrible Waste of War

NORMANDY BEACHHEAD, June 16, 1944 – I took a walk along the historic coast of Normandy in the country of France.

It was a lovely day for strolling along the seashore. Men were sleeping on the sand, some of them sleeping forever. Men were floating in the water, but they didn’t know they were in the water, for they were dead.

The water was full of squishy little jellyfish about the size of your hand. Millions of them. In the center each of them had a green design exactly like a four-leaf clover. The good-luck emblem. Sure. Hell yes.

I walked for a mile and a half along the water’s edge of our many-miled invasion beach. You wanted to walk slowly, for the detail on that beach was infinite.

The wreckage was vast and startling. The awful waste and destruction of war, even aside from the loss of human life, has always been one of its outstanding features to those who are in it. Anything and everything is expendable. And we did expend on our beachhead in Normandy during those first few hours.

(This is quoted directly from "Ernie's War: The Best of Ernie Pyle's World War II Dispatches," so it was originally a written piece. The use as a script should dictate that you don't paraphrase at all as it looses authenticity. Unknown if this was every actually used as a documentary. Ernie Pyle was a widely-read war correspondent.)

Submitted by TxTom

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The Iberian Lynx

In one of the last truly wild corners of southern Spain a secretive preditor defends it’s final stronghold. The misty mountains of Andulusia are home to the rarest wild cat on Earth, the Iberian Lynx. A cat that looks death in the face, on a daily basis.
But can it cheat death and hang onto survival?

It’s time to journey into this fragile wilderness to track the lives of these wild lynx in intemate detail. Enemies await at every turn, but the rewards can be great for the supreme hunter.

We follow 2 females living on different sides of the tracks - one in the mountains, the other in the lowland swamps. Two cats with one mission: to escape being caught by extinction’s sweeping net.

This is the incredible story of Spain’s Last Lynx.

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The Johnstown Flood

Script:

At the end of the 19th century, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, was a booming coal and steel town filled with hardworking families striving for a piece of the nation's burgeoning industrial prosperity. In the mountains above Johnstown, an old earth dam had been hastily rebuilt to create a lake for an exclusive summer resort patronized by the tycoons of that same industrial prosperity, among them Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick and Andrew Mellon. Despite repeated warnings of possible danger, nothing was done about the dam. Then came May 31, 1889, when the dam burst, sending a wall of water thundering down the mountain, smashing through Johnstown and killing more than 2,000 people. It was a tragedy that became a national scandal.

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The Land Of Egypt

Egypt has always been a land of mystery and magic- a land different from all others, difficult to understand, apart and alien, yet strangely fascinating.

It was the most self-contained of all the countries of the ancient world; it lived its own life, practiced its own religion, and made up its own government with hardly any outside interference either from or upon other civilizations.

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The Lost MInes of Calconda

India - a land filled with mystery, danger and legend. And for more than 5,000 years the sole source of the world’s biggest diamonds, most from the ancient Golconda Region. But it has been more than 250 years since diamonds have been mined here. Locals believe in an ancient curse that brings misfortune and even death to anyone who attempts to locate these stones. Historians say the ancient diamond mines of Golconda have been lost forever. But one man has spent much of life searching for these mysterious treasures. Now, he believes he’s on the verge of discovery worth billions of dollars.

Sam has gathered a team of the best minds from all over the world to join his quest to find the legendary lost mines of Golconda. After 14 years of research, Sam believes he has the final clue that will lead him directly to the site of the ancient diamond mines of Golconda. It’s an ancient sanscrit scroll that mentions the city of Kollur and the word Diamond. Sam takes the ancient scroll to his old friend Colonel Shali. Colonel Shali takes Sam to a Hindu Priest who he hopes can translate the mysterious scroll. India is rife with superstition, and the curse of the Golconda diamonds, real or not, may very well interfere with Sam’s expedition. Sam’s team is arriving in India from all over the world. They are investing their time and money because they believe in Sam’s certainty that he is close to locating the lost mines of Golconda.

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The lost Mines of Golconda

India - a land filled with mystery, danger and legend. And for more than 5,000 years the sole source of the world’s biggest diamonds, most from the ancient Golconda Region. But it has been more than 250 years since diamonds have been mined here. Locals believe in an ancient curse that brings misfortune and even death to anyone who attempts to locate these stones. Historians say the ancient diamond mines of Golconda have been lost forever. But one man has spent much of life searching for these mysterious treasures. Now, he believes he’s on the verge of discovery worth billions of dollars.

Sam has gathered a team of the best minds from all over the world to join his quest to find the legendary lost mines of Golconda. After 14 years of research, Sam believes he has the final clue that will lead him directly to the site of the ancient diamond mines of Golconda. It’s an ancient sanscrit scroll that mentions the city of Kollur and the word Diamond. Sam takes the ancient scroll to his old friend Colonel Shali. Colonel Shali takes Sam to a Hindu Priest who he hopes can translate the mysterious scroll. India is rife with superstition, and the curse of the Golconda diamonds, real or not, may very well interfere with Sam’s expedition. Sam’s team is arriving in India from all over the world. They are investing their time and money because they believe in Sam’s certainty that he is close to locating the lost mines of Golconda.

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The Maya

The Maya, an ancient South American culture, predicted that time would end in a violent apocalypse on December 21, 2012. They created an elaborate astronomical calendar called "The Long Count," which stops abruptly in 2012. This date, which is also the winter equinox, coincides with an incredibly rare galactic alignment that happens once every 26,000 years. What did the Mayans think would happen when their calendar ended? And were they joined by other cultures--from different parts of the world and in different centuries--all pointing to 2012 as a calamitous end time?

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The Maya 2

The land of the Maya spread from parts of Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala in the south, to Belize and Mexico in the north. It was covered with hundreds of small kingdoms, each with its own unique history. The heartland of what scholars call the classic Mayan civilization lay in the southern lowlands. It is there that our story takes place, starting at the site where scientific excavations first began – Copan.

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The Meadow

The meadow is full of life. Tall, yellow wildflowers called Goldenrod grow in the meadow. In the morning, a hungry, green grasshopper nibbles on a wildflower. Nearby, a big, brown toad is watching. Soon, the hungry toad catches the grasshopper with his long, sticky tongue and eats him right up. Toads can do that. At noontime, the toad is resting. A snake slithers by. The long, hungry snake sees the toad and eats him in one big bite. Snakes can do that. In the afternoon, a hawk flies over the meadow. She spies the snake below. She swoops down and catches the snake with her feet. Hawks can do that. At sunset, the hawk shares the snake with her hungry chicks. It’s the end of a long day of eating in the meadow. And it all began with wildflowers.

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The Mediterranean

Like most other Mediterranean cities, Athens must be seen by day, but experienced by night. This is the time to enjoy ones self and meet people. Parties go on 'til dawn. The Greek government is trying to impose early closing hours in the interest of daylight productivity, but this initiative has been very unpopular.

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The Mormons 1

At a certain point, every religion must explore its sacred past. What shards of history have survived? What is myth? What is symbol? Where does man end and God begin? And what is the shadow side? It took Christianity almost 2,000 years to look at its founding stories with modern eyes. The Mormon sacred stories are so new, they still smell of the earth.

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The Nile River Valley

Egypt is the gift of the Nile, wrote an Egyptian historian 25 centuries ago. 90% of Egypt’s population lives around the stem of the Nile river and the Nile delta, which accounts for only 5% of the countries land area. Virtually all Egyptian agriculture also takes place in this fertile region.

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The Panama Canal

The building of the Panama Canal was one of the most grandiose, dramatic, and sweeping adventures of all time. Spanning nearly half a century, from its beginnings by a France
in pursuit of glory, to its completion by The United States on the eve of World War I,
it enlisted men, nations and money on a scale never before seen in all of history.

Apart from the Great Wars, it was the largest, costliest single effort ever mounted
anywhere on Earth, and it affected the lives of tens of thousands of people throughout
the world.

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The Savage Seas

It may be hard to believe, but our climate today is mild. Since the last Ice Age just 10,000 years ago, the sea and the sky have conspired to keep that ice at bay. The oceans bring us our weather. But more than that, they are part of a vast and mysterious system that keeps our whole climate in balance- a balance that keeps life on earth possible, and can just as easily take it away. The waterspout is a vivid demonstration of sea and sky in partnership; a small example of the volatile system that creates weather on earth. It seems as if the sea is being sucked into space. In fact, the funnel is just a swirling cloud. Only the bottom 20 feet is seawater. Inside there is nothing but air.

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The Singularity

We are the masters of our planet. And for 200,000 years our intelligence has allowed us to rule unchallenged. But those days are drawing to a close. A new intelligence is rising ... Artificial Intelligence. Our greatest scientists are on the verge of creating machines capable of independent thought. With intellects that could one day surpass our own. A singular event that will dramatically change life as we know it. What would a world dominated by super intelligent machines be like for us ? Paradise ? Or a nightmare ! Will it mean immortality ... or extinction ? One thing we do know. The process has already begun. The Singularity is near. And there's no turning back.

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The Sphinx

Nothing represents the mysteries of ancient Egypt more than the Great Sphinx. How did the Egyptians build this crouching lion, human-headed creature?
Who built it and why?
The riddles of the Sphinx have puzzled all who have laid eyes on it, from emperors to presidents.
Before it's too late, two teams of scientists and builders are tackling the age-old riddles of the Sphinx. They're immersing themselves in the world of ancient Egypt, a world of pharaohs and pyramids, animal gods and mummies, sun worship and human sacrifice.
Will the eternal sands of Egypt finally give up the secrets of this human-headed lion?
Giant paws, longer than a city bus stretch out before it. A whipping tail, wraps around its back. And its enormous body, about the weight of fifty 747 jumbo jets, is on haunches, poised to pounce.
But this lion has a human head as big as a house, for this is the Great Sphinx.
At nearly 240 feet long—almost the length of a football field—and almost 70 feet tall—the height of the White House—the Sphinx is the largest statue in all of Egypt, a land renowned for its oversized monuments.
It is here at Giza, home of the Sphinx and the Great Pyramids, where building big really booms. Around 2500 B.C., more than 4,000 years ago, the Giza Plateau is a desolate landscape. A visionary Pharaoh named Khufu constructs the Great Pyramid. He's followed by his son, and then his son's son, who build two more pyramids.
Designed as giant tombs to insure the kings' safe passage to the afterlife, the pyramids and their surrounding temples transform an area of the Giza Plateau into a vast city of the dead. Pharaoh Khufu's pyramid is the most famous gravestone on Earth.

Contributed by DanielKrempa

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The Sun

Compared with the billions of other stars in the Universe,the Sun is unremarkable. But for Earth and the other planets that revolve around it,the Sun is a powerful center of attention. It holds the Solar System together,pours life giving heat,light and energy to the Earth.

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The Tea Horse Road by Mark Jenkins

Deep in the mountains of Western Sichuan, I'm hacking through a bamboo jungle, trying to find a legendary trail. Just 60 years ago, when much of Asia still moved by foot or hoof, the Tea Horse Road was a thoroughfare of commerce, the main link between China and Tibet. But my search could be in vain. A few days earlier I met a man who used to carry back-breaking loads of tea along the path; he warned me that time, weather and invasive plants may have wiped out the Road. Then, with one sweep of my axe, the bamboo falls. Before me is a four foot wide, cobblestone trail curving up through the forest, slick with green moss, almost overgrown. Some of the stones are pitted with water-filled divots, left by metal-spiked crutches used by hundreds of thousands of porters who trod this trail for a millennium. I am standing on what's left of this famous but now all-but forgotten route - the Tea Horse Road.

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The TET Offensive

In April 1967, North Vietnamese Army units opened their biggest offensive of the Vietnam war. Their role was to draw American forces into the remotest parts of South Vietnam, far away from the populated areas. The hope was that the main attacks, scheduled for early 1968 would find the Americans deployed in all the wrong places.

Fighting began at the end of March when a strategic marine patrol ran into an ambush near one of the strategic hills that lay between the fire bases of Khe Sanh and Con Thien. Dozens of marines were killed during this first brief and unforeseen combat. The North Vietnamese had by then assembled nearly 2,000 men near the base at Con Thien and almost every day they hit the marines with artillery, rockets and mortars.

In the rugged country side around, there were savage battles as patrols from each side clashed in what became known as the Hill fights. During these battles 160 marines were killed and 700 wounded. The NVA resisted with such courage, that as a mark of respect, the marines who usually called the Vietcong "charlie", rechristened them "Mr. Kong."

But in the end, it was the sheer weight of American firepower that turned the tables at Con Thien. Repeated NVA assaults were broken and more than 900 North Vietnamese soldiers were killed by marine artillery, massive bombing and the guns of naval vessels off shore.

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The Tobacco Industry

For 400 years, tobacco has been a pillar of American enterprise. But now it faces the most sustained assault since the Surgeon General in 1964 first declared smoking a health hazard. The danger attributed to cigarettes moved to a menacing new plane recently when the Environmental Protection Agency declared second-hand smoke responsible for as many as 9,000 deaths annually. Efforts to ban smoking have expanded exponentially: The Labor Department has proposed a broad ban on smoking that would affect 70 million workers; sweeping new no-smoking edicts are being enforced at military installations and in giant fast-food chains like McDonald’s.

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The War Of The Worlds

On this day in 1938, Marians invaded Grovers Mill, NJ—at least that’s what one and one-half million radio listeners believed. H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds was performed in the style of a news alert on CBS by 23 year old Orson Welles and his Mercury Theatre troupe.

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The White House

If you thought you could get invited to the White House, say, for a state dinner, would you give it a try? After all, you’re paying your share for the spreads they put on there, so you’ve got a right to be halfway curious about what they’re like. And in case you’ve got a friend who keeps lording it over you that the mayor shook his hand at the last Lion’s Club picnic, a White House invitation might prove a handy equalizer. The fact is that White House invitations, as impressive as they may be to most people, are not all that impossible to come by. Every year, the White House hosts scores of dinners honoring foreign dignitaries on state visits.

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The Zambezi River

The Zambezi river is 1,700 miles long from its source to its mouth on the shores of the Indian Ocean. It was formed during the volcanic upheavals of the Jurassic period about 150 million years ago, when an old river was split into two. The Zambezi is the fourth-largest river in Africa. It rises in northern Zambia, and flows southwest into Angola before turning back into Zambia and heading south.

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Thomas Jefferson

He endured the loss of nearly everything he held dear but somehow never lost his faith in the future. He distilled a century of enlightenment thinking into one sentence which began “We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal.” Yet he owned more than 200 human beings and never saw fit to free them. “Thomas Jefferson was a shadow man,” said John Adams. “His character was like the great rivers, whose bottoms we cannot see and make no noise.”

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Tis The Season To Be Smurfy

Ah, Smurfs. Little. Blue. Different. Plus, you have to like any language in which the word smurfy can be substituted to mean pretty much anything. In Hanna-Barbera’s 1987 holiday treat, Papa, Brainy and the gang set out to foil a yuletide thief --who looks and sounds a lot like Gargamel.

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Titanic - Titanic: 100 Years: Sinking of the Titanic (From National Geographic)

Titanic. At 882 Feet…nearly four times the length of a Boeing 747, it’s
the largest ship ever built. Titanic is part of a fleet of colossal new ships, along with the Olympic and the still to be launched Gigantic.
The White Star Line owns the fleet and with this trio of giants they hope to gain a monopoly on the route and crush the competition. Both the Titanic and the Olympic were built here in Belfast, Ireland. They were specially constructed to survive the rough stormy waters of the North Atlantic. Titanic took 3 years to complete and 8 lives were lost during her construction. 2,000 sheets of strong, flexible steel plate cover her vast frame. 3 million steel and wrought iron rivets hold her together. She is unquestionably the pride of the fleet. Titanic is equipped with the latest safety features, including 15 water-tight bulkheads, connected by state-of-the-art electrically controlled doors. Titanic’s designers are so confident in the new ship, so certain of its invinceability, that they equip her with just 20 lifeboats, enough for only half the passengers and crew. The press, seduced by this hubris, dub her “unsinkable”.

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To The Corps

To the Corps
By David Knize

I am highly trained and highly skilled.
I live by principals that form the foundation for leadership.
I am strong, I am always faithful and I am fearless.
I serve with honor and protect with devotion and dignity.
I am a humanitarian, a peace keeper and a strategic warrior.
I am first to fight and ready to react to any course of action.
I am prepared to respond to full scale combat engagements at a moment’s notice.
I guard my post with vigilance, to protect my brothers, my squad, my compound and my country.
I stand tall, proud, and I risk life for liberty.
I am referred to as a Jarhead, a Grunt, a Leatherneck, or a Devil Dog.

I am a United States Marine.

Over 6,000 Soldiers have lost their lives fighting in the Iraq and Afghanistan coalitions. The Marine Corps makes up only 10.8% of the total Department of Defense force, but experienced 23.3% of the combat related deaths. Approximately 867 Marines have fallen.
Note: The statistics are approximate.
Resources: The Cost of War by Rod Powers about.com
icasualties.org

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Tornados

Tornado ( from the latin word tornare-“to turn”) is the most violent storm nature produces. Essentially it’s a vortex of destructive whirling winds with uprushing currents of great lifting strength. The speed of a tornado can reach as high as 500 miles an hour. The dynamic force of these wind currents results in a partial vacuum at the center of the funnel which exerts and explosive effect as it passes over structures.

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Transcontinental Railroad

Nothing Like It In the World is the story of the men who built the transcontinental railroad-the investors who risked their businesses and money; the enlightened politicians who understood its importance; the engineers and surveyors who risked, and lost, their lives; and the Irish, Chinese, defeated Confederate soldiers, and other laborers who did the backbreaking and dangerous work on the tracks. The U.S. government pitted two companies-the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific Railroads-against each other in a race for funding, encouraging speed over caution. At its peak, the work force approached the size of Civil War armies, with as many as 15,000 workers on each line. The surveyors, the men who picked the route, were latter-day Lewis-and-Clark types who led the way through the wilderness, living off buffalo, deer, elk and antelope.

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Trolleys

By 1929, patronage on the nation’s street railways was showing an alarming decline. True, part of this was due to both the automobile and the Depression, but a formidable factor was the trolley itself, by then considered old-fashioned. It was unattractive, it was noisy, it was slow. Many efforts were made to produce an ideal street car by builders and transit companies. Some of these productions were quite unconventional and closely resembled busses of the time. None had any lasting success. Finally, in mutual desperation, traction company executives joined together to call a conference. Its purpose; to develop a radically new streetcar without the objectionable features of the cars then in use. A million dollars was earmarked for the project, which was directed by Professor C. F. Hirschfield of the Detroit Edison Company. It was believed that a non-streetcar man would have fewer preconceived ideas on a subject demanding an entirely fresh outlook. The President’s Conference Committee went to work, testing everything imaginable to find a "better way to do it." Acceleration, brakes, lighting, heating, seating, ventilation, noise, springing - everything about a trolley was probed and thoroughly studied.

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Turkey

During the breeding season, male wild turkeys gobble, strut, and preen their iridescent feathers, all to attract the attention of eligible mates. But apparently the single most attractive feature to females is not a male’s power suit or macho strut, but his snood--a fleshy appendage above his beak that can stretch to twice its ordinary length during courtship. And not only do females prefer long snoods, but according to Northeast Louisiana University behavioral ecologist Richard Buchholz, males assess the snood lengths of other males before engaging in battle.

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Turkey 2

We're off to Turkey, where Europe meets Asia in a whirl of color, an unforgettable mix of old and new! This fabled gateway to the orient beguiles the traveler with an exotic blend of sites and sounds and smells and tastes. 3,000 years of history comes to life in Istanbul. The city was once the capital of the world's hottest cultures. We'll visit architectural wonders, including magnificent mosques, ornate palaces and the sultan's legendary harem. We'll also visit Istanbul's famous bazaar to look for a deal on carpets.

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Tuscany

There are only five central Italian regions, but these are fittingly acknowledged to constitute the very heart of Italy – and they are all very different. Tuscany is the most famous, an ancient, mellow and harmonious landscape characterized by a graceful way of life. From Tuscany come the best bread and the purest extra virgin olive oil, as well as the classic chianti wine.

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Tuscany 2

Tuscan cuisine has a centuries-old tradition to protect. Gourmets from every age have praised its specialties and appreciated their consistent excellence. In palace and farmhouse, in the hills and on the seashore, it was practically impossible to find a meal that was lacking in grace or was in some way defective.

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Understanding Human Security

The vast majority of scientists agree that global climate change will be one of the main challenges in the next century. This, along with population stress, pollution, and the growing ‘income gap’ threaten the most basic principles of human security—principles such as access to food, water, and shelter. Competition over these resources is a huge potential source of instability.

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Underwater Dream Machine

Most of the surface of planet Earth is underwater; what lies beneath the waves is hidden from human eyes. But in 1869, the French science fiction author Jules Verne imagined the Nautilus: a vessel that could allow men to see the undersea world in all its glory. Verne's novel, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, brought to life in this 1954 film, inspired a young Peter Robbins... More than a century of technological developments have made a reality of Jules Verne's fantasy. Today, submarines large and small criss-cross the deep ocean. But compared to the Nautilus, in one important respect, real-life subs are a bit of a disappointment: they don't have much of a view. The big military submarines don't have any windows at all, and even a scientific mini-submersible like the famous Alvin has only tiny portholes. But now, Peter Robbins has decided that he will emulate Captain Nemo, and build his very own deep-diving submarine with a view: one with a transparent pressure hull. For the designer, it's completely unknown territory... and pushing the boundaries of technology can be dangerous. The Underwater Dream Machine, right now, on NOVA.

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United Nations

In 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed a “Declaration by United Nations,” proposing a set of principles by which the countries of the world could work together for peace and security. The notion of a “United Nations” continued to evolve until, in 1945 in San Francisco, the UN we know today was created. Since it was chartered, the UN has deployed more than 45 peacekeeping forces, negotiated more than 170 settlements that ended regional conflicts, and established vital humanitarian relief and environmental programs. It has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize three times.

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Urbanization

Urbanization is the occurrence of unequal growth in cities, and it is happening throughout the developing world. During this decade, developing country cities will need to accommodate 180,000 new urban dwellers each day - that is more than one million a week. It is estimated that there are currently 837 million slum dwellers in the developing world, with a majority being children. At the projected rate of growth the number of slum dwellers will increase to approximately 1.5 billion by 2020, resulting in the urbanization of the poor and the young. Some of this growth is from in-migration, but a substantial percentage of it is from population growth of residents already living in cities.

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US Space Program Starts at Ft. Bliss.

May 1945, it's the close of WW II and a group of German V2 Rocket scientists led by the modern "Father of Rocketry", Wernher von Braun, gladly surrender to American troops in Germany. The team of more than 100 scientists were swept off to Ft. Bliss where they continued their rocket research program named Operation PaperClip!
While at Ft Bliss, Von Braun and the scientists, trained US military, industrial and university personnel in the intricacies of rockets and guided missiles.
You could say that America’s “Race to Space” actually started right here in El Paso 65 years ago.
More El Paso history next time, on El Paso History Moments. I’m _________________ for the El Paso County Historical Commission.

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Vangelis

The world's most legendary electronic musicians aren't always DJs, as this Greek gentleman proves.

His soundtrack to "Chariots of Fire" is his best known,
with the theme song being often used in numerous dramatic sequences.

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Ventilation Standards

In 1946, ventilation standards for U.S. buildings were reduced by two-thirds -- from an exchange rate of 30 cubic feet of air per minute per person, to a rate of 10 cubic feet of air. The old ventilation standard -- enforced by law in 22 states -- was swept aside by a new architectural concept: the mechanically ventilated building. Wartime advances in heating and air-conditioning had convinced designers that sealed, climate controlled buildings were not only possible -- but desirable. Still, you could open a window if you needed to. With the first world energy crisis in 1973-and-4, however, the drive for “hermetically sealed” buildings began in earnest.

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Vietnam: Operation Sunrise

March 1962 - Operation Sunrise begins the Strategic Hamlet Resettlement program in which scattered rural populations in South Vietnam are uprooted from their ancestral farmlands and resettled into fortified villages defended by local militias. However, over 50 of the hamlets are soon infiltrated and easily taken over by Viet Cong who kill or intimidate village leaders.

As a result, Diem orders bombing raids against suspected Viet Cong-controlled hamlets. The air strikes by the South Vietnamese Air Force are supported by U.S. pilots, who also conduct some of the bombings. Civilian causalties erode popular support for Diem and result in growing peasant hostility toward America, which is largely blamed for the unpopular resettlement program as well as the bombings.

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Visitor Center Film

IT WAS ONCE CALLED “A WEIRD AND SCENIC LANDSCAPE, PECULIAR TO ITSELF…” TODAY, IT’S PART OF ONE OF THE MOST REMARKABLE NATIONAL PARKS IN THE COUNTRY. MORE THAN 752,000 ACRES OF JAGGED LAVA ROCK AND SAGEBRUSH. STRANGE AND BARRON… BLEAK AND MYSTERIOUS… IT FEELS LIKE ANOTHER WORLD. FOR GENERATIONS, IT WAS MOSTLY UNKNOWN, UNEXPLORED…UNMAPPED. BUT TODAY…THIS LAND HAS BECOME SOMETHING SPECIAL. A PLACE OF DISCOVERY…WHERE EVERYDAY TRAVELERS…SCIENTISTS…EVEN NASA ASTRONAUTS…ALL COME… TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT OUR PLANET. IT’S ALL HERE…AMONG THE CRATERS OF THE MOON.

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Voices From The Storm

Begun as a war to restore the Union, the Civil War became a struggle to transform a nation.
--In that struggle, no community in America suffered more than this one.
--For most of four years, armies blue and gray traversed, occupied, or fought over this ground.
--For this community, an ordeal that started with offense, uncertainty, and outrage, ended amidst horror, poverty, and death.
--The Union Army--or Yankees as they are known hereabouts--first came to Fredericksburg in the summer of 1862. There would be no fighting, no looting...just and uneasy co-existence between local residents, who took offense at the presence of blue-clad men in the streets, and the Union soldiers, who found bemusement in the intensity of local residents' disdain.
--Helen Bernard recorded the prevailing attitude of local residents after the arrival of the Union Army.

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Volcanoes

A volcanic vent is an opening exposed on the earth's surface where volcanic material is emitted. All volcanoes contain a central vent underlying the summit crater of the volcano. The volcano's cone-shaped structure, or edifice, is built by the more-or-less symmetrical accumulation of lava and/or pyroclastic material around this central vent system.

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Voodoo

In Haiti, where survival has often depended on family and community support systems, Vodoo is family oriented, community based, and ultimately charitable. The basic rituals of Voodoo are ceremonies during which the many spirits are fed offerings; afterward the food is shared with the hungry. Still, Voodoo does have a sinister side: black magic, rites designed to bring good to oneself and harm to one’s enemies. Traditional Voodoo priests reject black magic, believing it entails making a pact with the devil or with evil spirits, which in time will drag down and destroy the practitioner.

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W.H. Jackson - Photographer

Challenge was a constant in the working day of William Henry Jackson, a challenge to his
endurance ... to pack the cumbersome wooden camers and glass plates across the
wilderness, the uncharted mountains, canyons and rivers of Yellowstone.

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War Pranks

War Pranks
script submitted by SamDick

With World War 11 ranging in Europe, the Germans we’re fighting a losing battle. They needed to look more powerful than they actually were, so they came up with a solution: build a bunch of fake airfields out of wooden decoys.

But in fact, the Allies soon discovered that all those airfields were nothing more than props. The only thing left to do was to find a way to let the Germans know they weren’t fooling anyone.

So the Allies flew bombing raids over these fake wooden airfields. After several minutes, the Germans finally realized what the Allies were doing. They were dropping fake wooden bombs.

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Welcome to Mars

Spacecraft have been visiting Mars for more than 30 years. From orbit they've seen ancient floodplains, dried up lakebeds and river channels, strong evidence that this now cold, dry planet was once bathed in liquid water, the essential ingredient of life.

Recently scientists have found life on Earth in places they never thought possible before: miles deep underground, beneath Antarctic ice, even in boiling water by deep sea volcanoes, living on the chemical energy of sulfur instead of sunlight.

Wherever they look, if there's liquid water, there's life. So if early Mars had water, perhaps it had life, as well. But so far, attempts to find it have failed. And so have attempts to find proof that Mars really was wet.

To find the answer, Spirit and Opportunity will explore sites that look like they once had water and try to prove it on the ground. For Spirit, the science team chose Gusev Crater which they suspect was once a huge lake, fed by a channel the size of Grand Canyon.
And on the other side of Mars they chose Meridiani Planum, where an orbiter recently detected a mineral called hematite, which sometimes forms in contact with water. This is where Opportunity just landed.

The science team has been planning, rehearsing, and dreaming about this for years. Led by Principal Investigator, Steve Squyres, this all star collection of geologists and planetary scientists is about to start exploring Mars in a way that's never been done before.

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Whales And People

Mods Peter has chosen a grueling line of work. Whales are among the hardest of all animals to study. And the arctic is an utterly unforgiving environment in which to work. Mods Peter and his team are here to put satellite tags on the whales. Only then can they hope to chart the bowheads travelling through the arctic. It's brutal, bone chilling work, but exhilarating.

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Wikipedia Entry of "Carnotaurus," accessed on 4/21/2017

Carnotaurus was a lightly built, bipedal predator, measuring 8 to 9 meters in length and weighing at least 1.35 metric tons. As a theropod, Carnotaurus was highly specialized and distinctive. It had thick horns above the eyes, a feature unseen in all other carnivorous dinosaurs, and a very deep skull sitting on a muscular neck. Carnotaurus was further characterized by small, vestigial forelimbs and long and slender hindlimbs. The skeleton is preserved with extensive skin impressions, showing a mosaic of small, non-overlapping scales approximately 5 millimeters in diameter. The mosaic was interrupted by large bumps that lined the sides of the animal, and there are no hints of feathers.

The distinctive horns and the muscular neck may have been used in fighting other Carnotaurus. According to separate studies, rivaling individuals may have combated each other with quick head blows, by slow pushes with the upper sides of their skulls, or by ramming each other head-on, using their horns as shock absorbers. The feeding habits of Carnotaurus remain unclear: some studies suggest the animal was able to hunt down very large prey such as sauropods, while other studies find it preyed mainly on relatively small animals. Carnotaurus was well adapted for running and was possibly one of the fastest large theropods.

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Wildflowers

The “wildflower meadow in a can” idea suddenly zoomed into prominence almost as soon as the idea of including wildflowers in managed landscapes came into being. Sealing seeds in a can is a good idea, provided the cans are stored at cool temperatures. At the very least, seeds can be protected from undesirable humidity. But the weakness of the approach is in the fact that too many irresponsible retailers jumped onto the bandwagon and encouraged the idea that all the purchaser had to do was go home and scatter the seed just anywhere.

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Witchcraft

Witchcraft is also called Wicca, or alternatively, The Craft. This previously underground religion has much to teach every human about survival and about the ethical use of natural innate powers.

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Women Joined By Murder

On a muggy night in June 1964, two tiny girls lay asleep in their separate beds, 38 miles apart, while a blue station wagon sped down the road between their Mississippi communities. Their strange terrible connection: Angela's father, James Channey 21, was at the wheel of the car, while some of the men Donna trusted most in the world were plotting to kill them. That violent night left a legacy that would echo for decades to come. Prompted partly by national outrage over the murders, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 965, which outlawed racial discrimination at the polls. As the fortieth anniversary of the Mississippi murders loomed, Glamour brought together these two women at the spot where the execution took place. They approached the day with trepidation and finished it with the understanding and resolution they'd long been seeking.

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Women Take to the Air in World War 2

A select group of more than 1,000 women pilots became pioneers, heroes, and role models. They were the "Women Airforce Service Pilots" or "WASP", the first women in history trained to fly American military aircraft.
The Wasp flew more than 9 million miles and 77 models of aircraft and 38 women would perish while ferrying aircraft and as test pilots, all the while forbidden from actual combat duty.
After the war, the WASP are denied Veteran status until 1979. In 2002 native El Pasoan Irene Kinne Englund would be the first WASP to receive a military funeral in Arlington National Cemetery!
More El Paso history next time, on El Paso History Moments. I’m ----------------- for the El Paso County Historical Commission.
Tip: To be read in 50 seconds

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Working Girls Get Worked Up!

Working girls worked up over unjust fines!

In 1886 El Paso City council always looking to drum up extra revenue, from the Brothels and Saloons, voted to raise the monthly business fee on the local Scarlet Ladies from $5.00 to $10.00.

Enraged 150 ladies march, in unison, to City Hall, to demand the city reduce the fee back to $5.00!

But City Council easily brakes the ladies will when they threatened to check on their accounting books and arrest those who had not been paying their monthly fees.
The Ladies quietly slinked back to their brothels, and raised their fees on their customers by $5.00!

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World History

After World War II, the Soviet Union bit off a large chunk of Eastern Poland and compensated for it by moving Poland’s border with Germany westward. When the German territories of Silesia and Pomerania thus became Polish, more than 3 million Germans fled or were expelled, but hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans remain. In a series of post-war treaties, including the Helsinki Final Act of 1975, signed by 35 states, West Germany has promised not to challenge the new frontiers of Europe. But Bonn insists that the final agreement must await a peace treaty formally ending the war, a step that the Cold War prevented.

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World War

November 12, 1941--Russian Winter Takes Toll on German Soldiers.

On this day, the temperature on the Moscow front plummeted to twelve degrees centigrade below zero. For the first time, Soviet ski troops were launched into action. For many German soldiers, frostbite emerged as an unexpected, crippling foe. SS General Eicke reported back to headquarters that conditions were so bad, soldiers in his Death's Head Division were actually wounding themselves to escape further military service.

Particularly frustrated among his ranks were ethnic Germans—soldiers of German culture and language who came from outside Germany. But native Germans themselves were beginning to feel the bleakness of the Russian campaign. Since entering the Soviet Union four months earlier, the Death's Head division had suffered almost 9,000 casualties, more than half its initial strength. Meanwhile, back in Berlin, Hitler discussed his plans for Russia...

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World War II

Someone else knew about “Operation Orient” in Washington; Ambassador Oshmima’s message home were being decoded and read. In Toyko, Prime Minister Tojo and the Japanese government were cautious about accepting Operation Orient. The army was still smarting from its defeat in Manchuria. The imperial navy favored seizing the oil rich European colonies in Asia but believed America would intervene. They decided the first priority was to cripple the American Navy’s ability to stop them.

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World War II

The Nazi attack petered out by January. When it finally ended, the front lines were almost the same as they had been in December. But the Battle of the Bulge cost Hitler nearly a quarter of a million men, a big chunk of his armor, and all hope of defending Germany against the coming attacks from both east and west. The American Airborne’s last hurrah in Europe came on March 24, 1945. That day, paratroops and glider infantry of the 17th Airborne landed near Wessel, Germany. It was the biggest Allied Airborne operation of the war. With nearly 1700 transports and tow planes, and over 1500 gliders, it took almost 3 hours to land all the men.

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World War II 2

The Nazi attack petered out by January. When it finally ended, the front lines were almost the same as they had been in December. But the Battle of the Bulge cost Hitler nearly a quarter of a million men, a big chunk of his armor, and all hope of defending Germany against the coming attacks from both east and west. The American Airborne’s last hurrah in Europe came on March 24, 1945. That day, paratroops and glider infantry of the 17th Airborne landed near Wessel, Germany. It was the biggest Allied Airborne operation of the war. With nearly 1700 transports and tow planes, and over 1500 gliders, it took almost 3 hours to land all the men.

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World War II Canadians

The documentary you are about to see is the story of Canadians who fought in France in the Summer of 1944. In this account, actors portray some of the soldiers from both sides. The words they speak are based on letters and diaries, and interviews with those who survived. Today's Canadian army has also helped reconstruct some of the key moments in the battle for Normandy, a battle that was every bit as bloody and tragic as the worst of the First World War. This documentary series is dedicated to the 46,542 Canadians who gave their lives for their country in the Second World War.

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X-Ray Jets

A jet of X-rays from a super massive black hole 12.4 billion light years from Earth has been detected by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. This is the most distant X-ray jet ever observed and gives astronomers a glimpse into the explosive activity associated with the growth of super massive black holes in the early universe.
Giant black holes at the centers of galaxies can pull in matter at a rapid rate producing the quasar phenomenon. The energy released as particles fall toward the black hole generates intense radiation and powerful beams of high-energy particles that blast away from the black hole at nearly the speed of light. These particle beams can interact with magnetic fields or ambient photons to produce jets of radiation.

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Yale Unversity

Yale University was founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School, in Killingworth, Connecticut. In 1716, the school moved to New Haven and, with the generous gift by Elihu Yale of nine bales of goods, 417 books, and a portrait and arms of King George I, was renamed Yale College in 1718.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River is China's most important river in the North. The soil along much of the river is yellow in color, and that's what gives the river its name. As we cruise down the Yellow River. . . look closely at the mulberry leaves that grow along the banks. You may find them covered with silkworms. Their cocoons are spun into shiny threads, which will be woven into beautiful cloth called silk.

See that tough, woody looking grass? That's bamboo. Bamboo forests have been cut down in the past to make room for houses, but now China is working to protect the bamboo, which is essential to the diet of panda bears.

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Yellowstone Park

In the northern part of the park, large stretches of grass and sagebrush spread across the mountains and valleys. Similar to the prairies, this habitat provides an excellent home to the badger and her new family. They see light, for perhaps the first time. A strange new world for them. And they stay close to their mother at first. But growing bolder, they begin to explore on their own.

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“Carted Away” - Special Interest Story

In an all-out effort to clean up the city’s streets, San Francisco’s public works department inaugurated operation scrub-down. Three times a day, city workers move through a 30-block area, cleaning the pavement with high-pressure hoses, rousting squatters and taking away shopping carts filled with refuse and personal belongings.

Operation scrub down is the brainchild of Mohammed Nuru, a Nigerian who worked for years as an advocate for San Francisco’s homeless and who says he believes you don’t help people by encouraging them to live on the streets. Nuru says his crews remove between 200 and 500 carts from the streets every day.

John Viola, a civil rights attorney for the “coalition of the homeless,” says the numbers are nothing to cheer about. But Nuru objects when Viola talks about the carts and possessions as confiscated property, and claims that only abandoned carts are removed from the streets and sidewalks where they present a safety hazard.

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